Southern Europe

Euro zone finance ministers demand deeper cuts in Greece, Europe

By Robert Stevens and Jordan Shilton, 13 November 2012

A meeting of euro zone finance ministers on Monday delayed a further 31.5 billion euros in aid to Greece.

Strikes continue in Greece

By Christoph Dreier, 10 November 2012

Following parliamentary adoption of the fifth package of austerity measures, strikes are continuing in much of the Greek public sector.

What way forward for workers in Greece?

By Christoph Dreier, 9 November 2012

While this week’s strikes and mass protests show the immense potential power of the Greek workers, the policy of the trade unions and their political allies is aimed at suffocating the struggle to defeat the austerity measures.

L’Aquila, Italy earthquake: Long sentences for seismologists

By Marianne Arens, 9 November 2012

Seven scientists convicted to long sentences by a court in L’Aquila, Italy are being scapegoated for the disastrous consequences of the 2009 earthquake.

En Lucha’s Andy Durgan: Historical distortions to justify political betrayal of Spanish workers

Part three

By Dave Hyland, 9 November 2012

This is the conclusion of a three-part article on En Lucha’s Andy Durgan’s distortions of the lessons from Spanish history.

Greek parliament approves drastic austerity plan amid mass strikes

By Christoph Dreier, 8 November 2012

On Wednesday night the Greek Parliament voted in favor of the country’s fifth austerity program within the space of the last three years.

En Lucha’s Andy Durgan: Historical distortions to justify political betrayal of Spanish workers

Part two

By Dave Hyland, 8 November 2012

This is the second of a three-part article on the distortions of the lessons of Spanish history by En Luncha’s Andy Durgan.

Anti-austerity strike brings Greece to a halt

By Christoph Dreier, 7 November 2012

Tuesday saw the beginning of a 48-hour general strike in Greece against the government’s austerity measures.

En Lucha’s Andy Durgan: Historical distortions to justify political betrayal of Spanish workers

Part one

By Dave Hyland, 7 November 2012

This is the first of a three-part article on the distortions of the lessons of Spanish history by En Lucha’s Andy Durgan.

Italy’s ex-premier Berlusconi convicted of tax fraud

By Marc Wells, 5 November 2012

Media tycoon and former prime minister Silvio Berlusconi was convicted October 26 of tax fraud in a Milan court and sentenced to four years’ jail time and five years’ ban from public office.

Greek journalist acquitted for leaking list of wealthy potential tax dodgers

By Robert Stevens, 3 November 2012

Kostas Vaxevanis has been found innocent of breaching data privacy laws by a three-judge panel in Athens.

Defend the Greek working class!

By Christoph Dreier, 2 November 2012

A critical precondition for a struggle of the European working class against austerity is political solidarity with the embattled Greek working class.

The dead-end of Catalan independence

Part two

By Alejandro López and Paul Mitchell, 2 November 2012

This is the conclusion of a two-part article. Part one was published November 1.

The dead-end of Catalan independence

By Alejandro López and Paul Mitchell, 1 November 2012

Workers and young people should reject all claims that their interests are served by calls for Catalan independence, which have gained momentum with the economic crisis.

SYRIZA supports Greek government as it negotiates new austerity measures

By Christoph Dreier, 31 October 2012

Amid massive opposition to the new austerity package, the largest opposition party, SYRIZA, has pledged its support to the Greek government.

A quarter of Spain now unemployed

By Alejandro López, 31 October 2012

The Spanish ruling class is committed to a policy of class war, backed by police violence and state repression.

Separatist parties gain in Spanish regional elections

By Vicky Short and Paul Mitchell, 31 October 2012

The collapse in support for the governing Socialist Workers Party benefited separatist parties in regional elections in the Basque Country and Galicia.

Poverty, hunger and inequality grow in Spain

By Alejandro López, 30 October 2012

The European recession has increased suffering among the Spanish people.

Further cuts leading to collapse of Greek health system

By Christoph Dreier, 27 October 2012

One of the hardest hit victims of the austerity program dictated by the EU and the IMF is the Greek health sector.

Another EU memorandum for Greece

By Christoph Dreier, 25 October 2012

On Wednesday, the Greek government announced it had reached an agreement with the troika (the European Central Bank, European Commission and International Monetary Fund) on a new austerity package.

Poverty, hunger and inequality grow in Spain

By Alejandro López, 24 October 2012

There has been a dramatic rise in poverty, hunger and inequality across Spain since the outbreak of the economic crisis in 2008.

The danger of fascism in Greece

By Christoph Dreier, 23 October 2012

Brutal attacks on the social rights of the working class across Europe are accompanied by the growth of fascistic movements such as Greece’s Golden Dawn.

Exhibition of photographer Agustí Centelles in Barcelona: Many unanswered questions about the Spanish Civil War

By Paul Mitchell, 22 October 2012

A comment on an exhibition of photographs of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) at the Fundació Vila Casas in Barcelona.

Mass protests and police violence in Greece

By Christoph Dreier, 19 October 2012

As EU leaders assembled in Brussels to discuss how to proceed with the euro crisis, tens of thousands demonstrated in Greek cities against austerity measures.

Thousands demonstrate against new budget in Portugal

By Paul Mitchell, 18 October 2012

Thousands demonstrated in Lisbon outside the National Assembly and the prime minister’s residence, as the government announced the harshest budget proposals in decades on Monday.

EU austerity drives repression in Greece

By Christoph Dreier, 13 October 2012

Greece is in the forefront not only of assaults on social rights, but also of political attacks on the working class.

Greek police torture anti-fascist protesters

By Christoph Dreier, 11 October 2012

While anti-fascist demonstrators are being tortured and abused in Greek jails, the EU is encouraging and tolerating this practice.

German chancellor Angela Merkel visits Greece

By Christoph Dreier, 10 October 2012

The protests that took place during German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s state visit to Greece on Monday reflect the explosive class tensions in Europe.

Greek police collude with fascist Golden Dawn group

By Robert Stevens, 9 October 2012

Greek police are ever more openly colluding with the fascist Golden Dawn (Chrysi Avgi) organization.

European Union demands further cuts in Greece

By Christoph Dreier, 5 October 2012

The loans promised by the troika last June will be withheld until the Greek budget for 2013 complies fully with the proscriptions of EU bureaucrats.

Barcelona’s unemployed detail social tragedy engulfing Spain

By our reporters, 5 October 2012

Since the outbreak of the economic crisis in 2008, Spanish unemployment has risen from 8 percent to nearly 25 percent, over double the European Union average.

SYRIZA deepens European Union ties as austerity intensifies in Greece

By Christoph Dreier, 4 October 2012

The Greek government is encountering increasing difficulties in enforcing cuts and under these conditions the SYRIZA coalition is assuming growing significance for the ruling elite.

Santiago Carrillo, butcher of the Spanish Revolution

By Vicky Short, 4 October 2012

The ex-General Secretary of the Stalinist Communist Party of Spain, Santiago Carrillo, died on Tuesday September 18 at the age of 97.

Barcelona workers and youth discuss austerity

By a WSWS reporting team, 3 October 2012

Spain’s right-wing Popular Party government has secured a €100 billion bailout of the banks and is likely to ask for more money soon.

Tens of thousands protest austerity policies in Portugal, Spain

By Patrick Martin, 1 October 2012

Tens of thousands of workers, young people, unemployed and retirees demonstrated in major cities of Portugal and Spain Saturday.

Catalonia plans referendum on independence from Spain

By Alejandro López, 29 September 2012

On Thursday, the Catalan regional parliament passed a resolution to hold a referendum on self-determination.

Slovenia: Government and opposition join ranks to impose austerity

By Markus Salzmann, 29 September 2012

Slovenia’s conservative government is working closely with the opposition Social Democrats and the trade unions to impose another austerity package.

Millions of Greek workers join one-day general strike against austerity

By Stefan Steinberg, 27 September 2012

Millions of Greek workers stopped work and hundreds of thousands participated in demonstrations Wednesday to oppose the latest package of austerity measures introduced by the coalition government led by Antonis Samaras.

Spain’s anti-cuts protest violently broken up by police

By Alejandro López, 27 September 2012

Tens of thousands of demonstrators marched Tuesday to surround the Spanish parliament.

Greece: Growing resistance to austerity measures

By Christoph Dreier, 22 September 2012

While the Greek government consults EU representatives about how best to lower the state deficit, wide-scale popular resistance to austerity is brewing.

“Largest-ever” demonstrations in Portugal

By Paul Mitchell, 22 September 2012

Hundreds of thousands of people took part in demonstrations in 40 cities across Portugal organized under the slogan “To hell with the troika, we want our lives back.”

Thousands demonstrate in Madrid against austerity

By Alejandro López, 18 September 2012

On Saturday, firefighters, doctors, nurses, postal employees and others suffering the austerity measures being imposed by the Popular Party government marched through Spain’s capital.

Alcoa workers travel to Rome to protest imminent plant closure

By Mike Jobson, 17 September 2012

On September 10 about 500 Alcoa workers from Sardinia travelled to Rome to protest the imminent closure of their plant located in Portovesme.

The troika returns to Athens

By Christoph Dreier, 12 September 2012

The EU has transformed Greece into a protectorate, in which European companies can exploit workers at low wages.

Catalan separatism whipped up in Spain

By Alejandro López, 11 September 2012

The ruling class in Catalonia wants to pressure the central government in Madrid for more control over revenues amid rising social tensions.

Slovenia threatened with national bankruptcy

By Markus Salzmann, 10 September 2012

Although the country’s total debt is relatively low at 47 percent of GDP, the crisis gripping Slovenia’s three largest banks threatens to drag the country into the abyss.

The bankers’ dictatorship in Greece

By Stefan Steinberg, 8 September 2012

The financial elite is demanding a fundamental assault in Greece on all the gains made by the working class in the twentieth century.

EU, IMF demand lower wages, longer hours in Greece

By Stefan Steinberg, 6 September 2012

The letter leaked to the press before EU and IMF talks in Athens calls for a six-day work week, new minimum wage cuts, and other attacks.

European parliament president calls for special economic zones in Greece

By Ernst Wolff, 4 September 2012

The call for the introduction of special economic zones in Greece by the European Union signals an intensification of the attack on workers.

Sardinian miners occupy coal mine

By Marianne Arens, 31 August 2012

On Sunday evening over 100 miners began an occupation of the Carbosulcis coal mine, which is situated on the southwest coast of Sardinia.

Spain restricts aid to long-term unemployed

By Alejandro López, 31 August 2012

The Spanish government will impose new restrictions on aid to 600,000 long-term unemployed workers.

German chancellor demands tougher austerity in Greece

By Christoph Dreier, 25 August 2012

In his first official visit abroad, Greek Prime Minister Antonis Samaras travelled to Berlin for talks with German Chancellor Angela Merkel.

European Union intensifies pressure on Greece for social cuts

By Christoph Dreier, 23 August 2012

The aim of European meetings this week is to put pressure on Greece to commit to further social cuts, while ruthlessly implementing those already agreed upon.

Italian right wing honours fascist war criminal

By Marianne Arens, 22 August 2012

An Italian town has erected a monument to the notorious fascist, Rodolfo Graziani.

Spain: Forest fire outbreaks worsened by budget cuts

By Alejandro López, 21 August 2012

Wildfires in Spain this summer have so far claimed the lives of nine people and laid waste to 132,399 hectares, three times more than last year.

Spanish trade union plays Robin Hood with supermarket raids

By Alejandro López, 18 August 2012

Protest actions by members of the Andalusian Workers Trade Union and others are little more than stunts.

Racist murder in Greece reflects rising neo-Nazi influence

By Christoph Dreier, 15 August 2012

Early on Sunday morning a group of fascist thugs murdered a 19-year-old Iraqi on the streets of Athens.

Defend immigrants in Greece

By Christoph Dreier, 11 August 2012

Last weekend, some 4,500 Athens police officers were mobilized to round up thousands of people believed to be immigrants.

The betrayal of Spain’s miners strike and the silence of the fake left

By Alejandro López, 10 August 2012

The two main trade unions, the CCOO and UGT, have called miners back to work in the regions of Aragon, León and Asturias after 67 days of strike action.

Greek government launches mass round-up and deportation of immigrants

By Christoph Dreier, 9 August 2012

Just a week after the Greek government announced €11.5 billion in new cuts in social spending, 4,500 police officers in ​​bullet-proof vests, accompanied by Alsatian dogs, took to the streets of Athens to hunt down foreign-looking people

Portugal enforces labour reforms but more demanded

By Paul Mitchell, 6 August 2012

On August 1, Portugal’s new labour reforms came into force, dictated virtually word for word by officials from the European Union, International Monetary Fund and European Central Bank.

Banking crisis intensifies in Slovenia

By Markus Salzmann, 6 August 2012

Slovenia is among the Eastern European countries hardest hit by the financial crisis.

Greek government agrees €11.5 billion cuts package

By Robert Stevens, 4 August 2012

The leaders of the three Greek government parties have announced their agreement on further austerity cuts amounting to €11.5 billion.

Greek government plans further cuts

By Christoph Dreier, 1 August 2012

On Monday the Greek government announced it would only publish the details of the new austerity package in August.

Spanish unemployment nears 25 percent

By Alejandro López, 30 July 2012

Newly published figures show unemployment at a record high in Spain.

Greek government, European officials plan billions in new social cuts

By Alex Lantier and John Vassilopoulos, 27 July 2012

Greek officials met with European Commission (EC) President José Manuel Barroso and international financial officials yesterday to discuss a new round of budget cuts.

Brutal police attack on steel strike in Greece

By Katerina Selin, 26 July 2012

Last Friday police began a violent intervention to break the picket line at the Halyvourgia Ellados steel plant in Greece.

Spain’s regional governments seek bailouts

By Alejandro López, 25 July 2012

Unable to pay the interest on their debts, Spain’s regional governments are seeking bailouts from the central government.

EU representatives discuss withdrawal of Greece from the euro zone

By Christoph Dreier, 25 July 2012

European and international financial officials are threatening to force a state bankruptcy if Athens does not impose further austerity measures.

SYRIZA backs Greek government’s capitulation to the EU

By Christoph Dreier, 23 July 2012

The opposition party SYRIZA has reneged on its pre-election promises and now accepts the EU’s draconian conditions for financial aid to Greece.

Mass protests throughout Spain against government cuts

By Chris Marsden, 21 July 2012

Thursday’s demonstrations in Spain against the Popular Party (PP) government’s latest austerity measures were a mass outpouring of anger and defiance.

Finance ministers tie bailout of Spanish banks to deeper cuts

By Stefan Steinberg, 21 July 2012

Euro zone finance ministers agreed Friday to a €100 billion bailout aimed at averting a crash of the Spanish banking system.

Greek government lays out fresh cuts, privatisations

By Robert Stevens, 19 July 2012

The New Democracy-led coalition government in Greece is preparing a further 11.6 billion-euro austerity package.

New Serbian government commits to austerity measures

By Ognjen Markovic, 18 July 2012

The new Serbian government is preparing a sweeping attack on the working class.

Mass demonstrations against Spain’s latest austerity package

By Alejandro López, 17 July 2012

On Monday morning, a demonstration of thousands blocked the centre of Madrid.

Spanish miners’ “black march” attacked in Madrid

By Michael Regens, 14 July 2012

The “black march” of Spanish miners, which was welcomed by more than 25,000 in Madrid, was brutally attacked by riot police.

Spain unveils new raft of brutal austerity measures

By Paul Mitchell, 13 July 2012

Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy of the right-wing Popular Party announced a new €65 billion package of cuts Wednesday, the fourth since his election last November.

Italian prime minister to cut additional €26 billion

By Marianne Arens, 10 July 2012

The new austerity package of Italian premier Mario Monti agreed last week will cut an additional €26 billion at the expense of the working population.

Greek government announces further austerity

By Christoph Dreier, 9 July 2012

During the recent election campaign, the Greek prime minister promised to renegotiate the memorandum with the so-called troika, but now he has categorically rejected such a step.

Pseudo-left apologists for unions’ betrayal of Spanish miners

By Alejandro López, 9 July 2012

The strike by 8,000 miners in the northern provinces of Asturias, León and Aragon, now more than 40 days old, indicates the broad opposition to the austerity measures imposed by the right-wing Popular Party government.

New austerity package in Slovenia

By Markus Salzmann, 6 July 2012

With Slovenian banks heavily in debt, the right-wing government of Prime Minister Janez Jansa is acceding to demands for tougher austerity measures.

Troika arrives in Athens to organise looting of Greece

By Robert Stevens, 5 July 2012

The New Democracy-led Greek coalition government is meeting officials from the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) today.

Greek government presses ahead with austerity

By Robert Stevens, 3 July 2012

Within days of being elected, the Greek coalition government led by New Democracy has already reneged on the few pledges it was forced to make in order to placate massive opposition to years of austerity.

Spain: Unions send striking miners on phoney jobs march

By Vicky Short and Paul Mitchell, 2 July 2012

Around 8,000 miners in regions across Spain have been on strike since May 31 against cuts to subsidies that could mean the end of coal mining and the destruction of about 50,000 mining and related jobs.

Conflicts emerge in formation of new Greek government

By Christoph Dreier, 27 June 2012

With the resignation of Finance Minister-designate Vasilis Rapanos and the appointment of Yannis Stournaras, conflicts have come to light in the formation of the new Greek government.

Greek government haggles over terms of debt repayment

By Robert Stevens, 25 June 2012

The meeting of the new Greek coalition government consisting of New Democracy, PASOK and the Democratic Left with officials from the European Commission, the European Central Bank and the International Monetary Fund has been delayed for a week.

Greek crisis stokes geopolitical rivalries

By Jordan Shilton, 23 June 2012

The economic and social catastrophe unfolding in Greece is bringing to the fore long-running geopolitical conflicts.

New Democracy heads austerity coalition in Greece

By Julie Hyland, 21 June 2012

New Democracy party leader Antonis Samaras was sworn in as Greece’s new prime minister Wednesday evening, heading a coalition government with the social democratic PASOK and the Democratic Left.

Prospective coalition parties in Greece pledged to impose deeper cuts

By Julie Hyland, 20 June 2012

Athens is expected to announce a “national salvation” coalition headed by the conservative New Democracy, whose objective is to press ahead with the austerity measures agreed with the troika—the European Union, the European Central Bank and the International Monetary Fund.

The human cost of Greece’s austerity measures

By Robert Stevens, 20 June 2012

The social hardship being imposed on an already poverty-stricken Greek population is without parallel in post-war Europe.

Massive support for June 18 general strike in Spain’s mining regions

By Paul Mitchell, 20 June 2012

A powerful one-day strike in Spain’s mining regions in support of striking miners shut down factories and shops and disrupted rail traffic.

What way forward in Greece?

By Chris Marsden, 19 June 2012

New Democracy leader Antonis Samaras is expected to form a coalition government in Greece tasked with implementing brutal austerity measures.

Athens workers and youth discuss Greek election result

By Robert Stevens, 19 June 2012

The World Socialist Web Site discussed with workers and youth in Athens the result of Sunday’s general election as negotiations continued to form a government following the narrow victory of the conservative New Democracy.

Conservatives narrowly win Greek election

By Chris Marsden, 18 June 2012

The narrow victory of the conservative New Democracy in the Greek general election sets the stage for intense negotiations over the formation of a coalition government.

Greek Communist Party holds final election rally

By Christoph Dreier and Katerina Selin, 18 June 2012

The perspective of the Greek Communist Party, based on nationalism and support for the trade union bureaucracy, makes a mockery of its rhetorical calls for “people’s power” and “interventions of the working class”.

Greek workers, students discuss election with WSWS in Athens

By Robert Stevens, 18 June 2012

A World Socialist Web Site reporting team spoke to a number of workers and young people in Athens on Friday and Saturday on the eve of the June 17 election.

The political issues in the Greek elections

By Chris Marsden and Julie Hyland, 16 June 2012

Whoever wins the election, the working class will be forced to repay the €200 billion- plus bailout through the austerity measures attached to the Memorandum signed with the troika.

SYRIZA’s final election rally in Athens

By Christoph Dreier and Katerina Selin, 16 June 2012

Alexis Tsipras promised on Thursday to end the austerity measures in Greece. At the same time he insisted that SYRIZA represented no threat to the European institutions and that his party was ready to recognize the national debt.

Greece: WSWS interviews Athens workers and youth

By Robert Stevens, 16 June 2012

A WSWS reporting team spoke to residents in the district of Aigaleo in west Athens about their attitudes to Sunday’s election.

Global crisis deepens after Spanish bailout

By Nick Beams, 14 June 2012

Rising interest rates in bond markets demonstrate that the €100 billion Spanish bailout last weekend has done nothing to resolve the euro zone crisis and may well have made it even worse.