Fascism

Sabisky eugenics scandal exposes fascist core of UK Tories

By Thomas Scripps, 22 February 2020

Sabisky’s resignation is meaningless and all the questions now being raised in the media about “vetting processes” are irrelevant.

999 Open letter to Princeton

22 February 2020

After the massacre in Hanau

Stop the right-wing terror in Germany!

By Peter Schwarz, 21 February 2020

A right-wing extremist terrorist shot and killed nine people in the German city of Hanau on Wednesday evening.

“One must not forget”: A musical tribute in Berlin to Jewish members of the Deutsche Oper orchestra persecuted by the Nazis

By Verena Nees, 21 February 2020

A moving concert paid tribute to four Jewish members of the Deutsche Oper orchestra who were forced into exile or murdered after Hitler came to power in 1933.

German Education Minister Karliczek supports right-wing extremist professor Jörg Baberowski

By Johannes Stern, 20 February 2020

The German government is defending the right-wing extremist professor after he threatened and physically attacked IYSSE spokesperson Sven Wurm on the campus of Berlin’s Humboldt University.

Russian state frame-up results in draconian prison sentences for left-wing youth

By Clara Weiss, 19 February 2020

Under conditions of staggering social inequality and rising class tensions, the harsh punishment is aimed at intimidating all opposition to the Russian state from the left.

Erfurt, Germany: 20,000 demonstrate against fascism

By our correspondents, 18 February 2020

“Not with us! No pact with fascists—never and nowhere!” This was the main slogan for the mass demonstration which took place in the East German city of Erfurt on Saturday, February 15.

German President Steinmeier calls for German-European great power politics at Munich conference

By Johannes Stern, 17 February 2020

In his opening speech at this year’s Munich Security Conference, Federal President Frank-Walter Steinmeier (SPD) stressed that the ruling class in Germany is determined to promote the return of militarism by all means.

Germany’s Left Party appeals for cooperation with Christian Democrats and Free Democratic Party in Thuringia

By Peter Schwarz, 17 February 2020

Although it was the target of the AfD in Thuringia, the Left Party has responded with evasions, concealing the truth, appeasement, and stretching out the hand of cooperation to the CDU and FDP.

#MeToo collaborates with fascistic forces to block showing of Polanski’s film J’Accuse

By Alex Lantier, 15 February 2020

Allied with the reactionary Macron government, #MeToo demands the censorship of Polanski’s brilliant account of the anti-Semitic frame-up of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, which was a seminal event in modern French history.

President of Berlin’s Humboldt University defends Professor Jörg Baberowski’s physical assault on left-wing student

By Christoph Vandreier, 15 February 2020

With her declaration of sympathy and refusal to clearly condemn the attack, Kunst has provided violent right-wing extremists with a blank cheque to intimidate and attack their political opponents at the university.

Spectre of the 1930s

Sound the alarm! Political conspiracy and the resurgence of fascism in Germany

By David North and Johannes Stern, 14 February 2020

Last week’s decision by the Christian Democratic Union in the federal state of Thuringia to elect a state premier together with the right-wing extremist Alternative for Germany exposes the filthy state of German politics.

Austrian Green Party in power adopts policies of the far right Freedom Party

By Markus Salzmann, 13 February 2020

For many years the Green Party presented itself as a left-wing, liberal political alternative. Now in government the party is pressing ahead with an anti-social, authoritarian course.

Germany: Trial in Hamburg for former SS security guard at Stutthof concentration camp

By Elisabeth Zimmermann, 10 February 2020

In the lawsuit against Bruno D, several of the co-plaintiffs have stressed the significance of the trial, given the current resurgence of far-right extremism and fascism in Germany, Europe and worldwide.

IYSSE spokesperson submits disciplinary complaint against right-wing extremist professor at Humboldt University in Berlin

By Sven Wurm, 10 February 2020

Following a physical attack by Professor Jörg Baberowski on Sven Wurm, the IYSSE spokesperson at Humboldt University, Wurm filed an official disciplinary complaint with the university administration.

Thuringia, Germany: Minister president elected with votes of far-right AfD announces resignation

By Peter Schwarz, 8 February 2020

Twenty-four hours after being elected with the support of the far-right AfD, CDU and FDP as minister president of the state of Thuringia, Free Democrat politician Thomas Kemmerich announced his resignation.

German ruling class commemorates liberation of Auschwitz by planning new wars and new crimes

By Johannes Stern, 8 February 2020

Just one week after official ceremonies marking the 75th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz, federal parliament President Wolfgang Schäuble has called for Germany to once again take up the “burden” of fighting wars abroad.

Far-right AfD plays role of kingmaker in German state election

By Christoph Vandreier, 7 February 2020

For the first time since the end of the Third Reich, a state premier was elected on Wednesday with the votes of a far-right, fascist party, the Alternative for Germany (AfD).

Immigration and Customs Enforcement agent shoots unarmed man in the face in New York City

By Shuvu Batta, 7 February 2020

Eric Diaz-Cruz was shot as he sought to stop his mother’s boyfriend from being detained by ICE early Thursday morning.

Right-wing extremist Professor Jörg Baberowski physically assaults socialist student

By our reporters, 5 February 2020

Baberowski attacked Sven Wurm, a student parliament deputy for the IYSSE, on January 30 at Humboldt University in Berlin. Wurm had caught the professor in the act of tearing down and destroying election placards. The incident was captured on video.

Ukraine government plagued by political infighting

By Jason Melanovski and Clara Weiss, 31 January 2020

Sharp divisions are coming to the fore as the government is pressing ahead with mass privatizations and attempts to negotiate a settlement with Russia over the ongoing civil war in eastern Ukraine.

Right wing whips up anti-refugee sentiment in Greek island protests

By John Vassilopoulos, 31 January 2020

Posters advertising the protests portrayed refugees as invaders and bore the slogan “We want our islands back… we want our life back!”

Brazilian President Bolsonaro guest of honor at India’s Republic Day

By Tomas Castanheira, 30 January 2020

Modi advocated a “strategic partnership” based on “similar ideology and similar values.”

Auschwitz liberation commemorated in Poland amid state-led campaign for historical revisionism and war

By Clara Weiss, 28 January 2020

Duda’s and Steinmeier’s condemnations of fascism and anti-Semitism stands in stark contrast to the political record of their own governments.

German government bans neo-Nazi group “Combat 18 Deutschland”

By Peter Schwarz, 28 January 2020

It was above all the fact that the close links between the militant neo-Nazi scene, the neo-Nazi National Socialist Underground (NSU) and the secret service could not be so easily covered up after the murder of leading Christian Democrat Walter Lübcke that persuaded Seehofer to take action.

Left Party prepares to cooperate with far-right Alternative for Germany in Thuringia

By Ulrich Rippert, 27 January 2020

The German ruling class and all its parties, from the Left Party to the far-right AfD, are drawing closer together and preparing to form an alliance against the working class.

Seventy-five years since the liberation of Auschwitz

By Christoph Vandreier, 27 January 2020

Auschwitz was at the heart of the machinery of industrialised mass murder that spanned the entire continent. Jews, Sinti, political opponents of the Nazi regime and others were deported to the death camp from every part of occupied Europe.

An interview with Auschwitz survivor Esther Bejarano

the editorial board, 27 January 2020

The 95-year-old Esther Bejarano was among the few who survived the living hell of Auschwitz.

Fascistic New Zealand soldier charged with disclosing military information

By Tom Peters, 25 January 2020

The soldier was a leading member of the Dominion Movement, which espoused the same fascist ideology as the Christchurch terrorist who killed 51 people in March 2019.

Pence, Netanyahu use Holocaust event in Israel to rail against Iran

By Bill Van Auken, 24 January 2020

The slander of Iranian “anti-Semitism” and unfounded claims that Tehran is seeking nuclear weapons are propaganda to justify a steady buildup toward war.

Brazil’s minister of culture fired after fascist speech plagiarizing Joseph Goebbels

By Tomas Castanheira, 22 January 2020

Alvim delivered his speech flanked by a Brazilian flag and a cross and with a Wagner opera that was reportedly Hitler’s favorite playing in the background.

Shots fired at SPD constituency office in Halle, Germany

By Marianne Arens, 22 January 2020

On the morning of January 15, five bullet holes were discovered in the window of Social Democratic Party (SPD) member of parliament Karamba Diaby’s constituency office in Halle.

When Hitler Stole Pink Rabbit: A child’s-eye view of the Nazis’ crimes

By Stefan Steinberg, 22 January 2020

The film is an adaptation of the book by Judith Kerr, the German-born British writer, published in 1971 and the first part of her Out of the Hitler Time trilogy.

Germany: New links found between Lübcke murder, neo-fascist NSU and the secret service

By Dietmar Gaisenkersting, 21 January 2020

The links between the series of murders carried out by the neo-Nazi terrorist group NSU, the murder of Kassel’s District President Walter Lübcke (CDU) and the secret service are closer than previously known.

All UK Labour leadership candidates sign up to stepped up pro-Zionist witch-hunt

By Robert Stevens, 15 January 2020

The most enthusiastic signatory to a document that means a stepped up witch-hunt of anti-Zionist party members is Rebecca Long-Bailey, the candidate favoured by the pro-Corbyn “left.”

World famous pianist Igor Levit victim of anti-Semitic death threats

By Marianne Arens, 11 January 2020

The fact that a Jewish pianist cannot perform publicly without protection indicates the extent of the current turn to the right in German politics.

Bandera supporters march in major Ukrainian cities after government names Nazi collaborators “national heroes”

By Jason Melanovski and Clara Weiss, 10 January 2020

The glorification of notorious anti-Semites and Nazi collaborators by the Ukrainian government is met with complicit silence by its imperialist backers.

New Year’s Eve in Leipzig: German media and police spread false reports about left-wing violence

By Christopher Lehmann and Christoph Vandreier, 8 January 2020

The aim of the latest campaign surrounding the events in Leipzig is to intimidate anyone who stands in the way of the far right.

Germany: Greens join Saxony coalition government’s right-wing agenda

By Martin Nowak, 8 January 2020

Shortly before the end of the year, the new state government in Saxony was sworn in. For the first time, a coalition of Christian Democrats, Social Democrats and Greens is taking over the government in the East German state.

Fascist group carries out terrorist attack in Brazil

By Tomas Castanheira, 8 January 2020

The Bolsonaro government, which denounces every form of social protest as “terrorism”, has remained silent about the firebombing, signaling tacit support for fascist violence.

New Zealand soldier linked to fascist groups arrested

By Tom Peters, 8 January 2020

The arrested soldier was initially questioned following the Christchurch terrorist attack in March 2019, in which a fascist gunman killed 51 people.

The growing fascist influence in German politics: The case of Christian Democratic politician Robert Möritz

By Gregor Link and Johannes Stern, 7 January 2020

At the end of last year, the case of the former Christian Democratic Union (CDU) politician highlighted the sharp shift to the right of the ruling class in Germany.

Conservative Austrian People’s Party to form government with Greens

By Markus Salzmann and Peter Schwarz, 6 January 2020

The Greens have seamlessly filled the shoes of the far-right Austrian Freedom Party (FPÖ), securing a majority for inhumane, pro-corporate, and law-and-order policies.

British fascists join Johnson’s Conservative Party

By Thomas Scripps, 3 January 2020

The Johnson government is an expression of the global rise of authoritarian and far right forces, sponsored by the ruling class as a necessary bulwark to confront social unrest and growing socialist sentiment.

UK Muslims demand investigation of Conservative Party’s Islamophobia

By Jean Shaoul, 30 December 2019

Johnson put racism and Islamophobia at the heart of his election campaign, pitting Indian Hindu voters against Pakistani Muslim voters.

UK Johnson government launches anti-Gypsy/Traveller/Roma measures

By Paul Bond, 28 December 2019

Without enough authorised encampments, the proposal to allow police to seize Travellers’ caravans—their homes—and destroy their property would effectively criminalise the existence of Gypsy, Roma and Traveller (GRT) communities.

Croatia: Right-wing Social Democrat wins first round of presidential elections

By Markus Salzmann, 28 December 2019

All candidates are deeply hated and discredited among broad sections of the population. Turnout in the elections was barely 39 percent.

Germany: Former secret service boss agitates against refugees and plays down right-wing terrorism

By Christoph Vandreier, 24 December 2019

One year after his removal as head of Germany’s domestic secret service, Hans-Georg Maassen (Christian Democratic Union, CDU) has become one of the spokesmen for the extreme right.

Hungary’s government continues its assault on democratic rights

By Markus Salzmann, 21 December 2019

Last week, the Hungarian parliament, dominated by the right-wing Fidesz party, passed bills that represent a further step towards dictatorial forms of rule.

US Army XVIII Airborne Corp posts sympathetic portrayal of Nazi war criminal on Facebook

By Kevin Reed, 18 December 2019

The publication of a glowing portrayal of Nazi war criminal Joachim Peiper by the Army’s XVIII Airborne Corp’s Facebook page exposes a constituency within the military for fascism.

Mass shooting in Jersey City, New Jersey being investigated as anti-Semitic hate-crime

By Matthew Taylor, 12 December 2019

New Jersey police believe that two assailants deliberately targeted a Kosher grocery store in an attack on Tuesday.

The Sun forced to delete article promoting fascist propaganda against UK left

By Paul Bond, 12 December 2019

The publication by the Sun of an article charging that Corbyn is the centre of a “hard-left extremist network” is part of an authoritarian turn by the ruling class.

Germany: SPD congress backs grand coalition government as class struggle intensifies

By Ulrich Rippert, 11 December 2019

The new SPD leadership is making hollow reformist promises in the hope of controlling growing anti-capitalist sentiment in the working class.

Appreciative audience at Australian launch of Why Are They Back?

By our reporter, 10 December 2019

The Sydney event probed the political climate behind the re-emergence of fascism and militarism in Germany and internationally.

Right-wing hate campaign in Germany against Nobel Prize winner Peter Handke

By Bernd Reinhardt and Peter Schwarz, 9 December 2019

The tirades levelled against Handke resemble the rantings by criminals intent on covering up their own tracks.

Ukraine: Three-year-old boy killed in attempted political assassination by the far right

By Jason Melanovski, 7 December 2019

The killing of a three-year-old demonstrates that far-right forces in Ukraine are being given free rein to carry out targeted political assassinations.

Former head of German Secret Service publishes fascist manifesto

By the Sozialistische Gleichheitspartei, 7 December 2019

Maassen’s article contains a thinly-veiled call for building a fascist movement to crush working class opposition to social inequality and militarism.

SPD youth leader defends Germany’s grand coalition government

By Ulrich Rippert, 6 December 2019

In a long interview with the Rheinische Post, Kühnert warned “of the consequences of a hasty exit” from the ruling grand coalition.

Germany: Far-right AfD’s party conference strengthens völkisch-nationalist “wing”

By Peter Schwarz, 4 December 2019

The nationalist “wing” group (Der Flügel) in the far-right Alternative for Germany (AfD) around Björn Höcke and Andreas Kalbitz has emerged strengthened from its federal party conference.

Many unanswered questions as Tories exploit London terror attack

By Robert Stevens, 2 December 2019

The brutal murder of the two young students was seized on by Boris Johnson and the pro-Tory media, with the Sunday Times leading on a promise from the prime minister to “lock terrorists up and throw away the key.”

Right-wing German Army officer Franco A. to be charged for terrorism

By Dietmar Gaisenkersting, 2 December 2019

The details now made public strongly suggest that the 30-year-old ex-Army officer is a neo-Nazi terrorist.

IYSSE, student unions defend students in Germany against right-wing attacks

By our reporters, 2 December 2019

Last week, nearly 100 students at Berlin’s Humboldt University and representatives of student organisations from numerous other universities met to protest against right-wing and militaristic teaching and defend students who criticize it from right-wing attacks.

Berlin Tax Office withdraws charitable status from Nazi victims’ organisation

By Justus Leicht, 30 November 2019

The decision is tantamount to a ban, depriving the organisation of tax concessions vital to fund its work.

Audio recording refutes Hannah-Jones’ claim that she was falsely quoted by the World Socialist Web Site

By Eric London, 27 November 2019

The World Socialist Web Site publishes the audio of Hannah-Jones’ remarks.

Christoph Vandreier and David North to speak at Sydney Gleebooks launch of Why Are They Back?

27 November 2019

Vandreier’s and North’s discussion will focus on the historical lessons that must be learned in order to build a mass working class movement capable of preventing the disaster of Nazism from taking place on an even greater scale today.

German student organisation bombarded with far-right hate mail

By Gregor Link, 25 November 2019

The University of Hamburg student organization has been bombarded with hate mail and threats of violence after students protested against a founding member of the far-right Alternative for Germany, Bernd Lucke, returning to his teaching post.

The Unwanted: 80 years since the tragic odyssey of the MS St. Louis

By Verena Nees, 21 November 2019

The German television drama The Unwanted: The Odyssey of the St. Louis recounts the story of the ship with more than 900 Jewish refugees on board fleeing Nazi Germany, prevented from landing by the Cuban, American and Canadian governments.

The Spanish election crisis and the treachery of Podemos

By Alex Lantier, 15 November 2019

With its anti-worker policies, the “left populist” party Podemos allows the neo-fascists to grow by posturing as the only opposition to a corrupt political establishment.

Podemos agrees to back Spanish social-democratic government

By Alex Lantier, 13 November 2019

Podemos is aware that the PSOE is organizing violent repression in Catalonia that strengthens the fascistic Vox party, and supports the PSOE on this basis.

Far-right Vox declares itself main opposition party as Spanish government talks begin

By Alejandro López, 12 November 2019

Sunday’s elections resulted once again in a hung parliament, the fourth in as many elections in Spain since 2015.

The Spanish elections and the rise of the fascistic Vox party

By Alex Lantier, 12 November 2019

Vox is part of a broad trend in European capitalist politics toward the promotion of neo-fascist parties, nationalism and the furious public legitimization of fascist dictators.

German defence minister calls for expansion of foreign military interventions

By Peter Schwarz, 11 November 2019

In a keynote address, Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer declared, “there is broad agreement that, given the strategic challenges, Germany must ... “do more to defend our values and interests.”

German Christian Democrats call for collaboration with the far-right AfD

By Marianne Arens, 9 November 2019

A leader of the CDU said in an interview that, in his opinion, the AfD was “a conservative party” and were “not all Nazis.”

Spain’s November 10 elections and the fight against authoritarian rule

By Alejandro Lopez, 9 November 2019

On Sunday, Spain will hold its fourth general elections in as many years, six months after the last elections this April.

IYSSE meetings in Germany: Stop the shift to the right at the universities!

By our correspondents, 6 November 2019

The meetings are part of a series being organised by the IYSSE across Germany to oppose the rise of the far-right on university campuses and in political life.

Halle, Germany: Government moves to establish a police state after fascist attack

By Gregor Link, 5 November 2019

The government is using the attack as a pretext to further arm the state apparatus and implement long-held plans to spy on journalists and Internet users.

Former neo-fascist candidate attacks mosque in French city of Bayonne

By Anthony Torres, 4 November 2019

The entire political and media establishment bears heavy political responsibility for these attacks, creating the filthy political climate that encourages right-wing elements to carry them out.

Hamburg senate deploys police against student anti-Nazi protest

By Christoph Vandreier and Johannes Stern, 2 November 2019

Hundreds of Hamburg students have protested against the return of Bernd Lucke, founder of the far-right Alternative for Germany, to their university in the past two weeks.

Hamburg, Germany: SPD-Green state executive uses police violence to guard lecture by AfD founder

By Christoph Vandreier and Johannes Stern, 1 November 2019

Hundreds of Hamburg students have protested against the return of Bernd Lucke, founder of the far-right Alternative for Germany, to their university in the past two weeks.

German state election: the Left Party’s policies open the way for the fascistic AfD

By Johannes Stern, 29 October 2019

The established parties were punished by the electorate for their right-wing and anti-working-class policies, but the main beneficiary is the far-right Alternative for Germany.

Mass rally against jailing of Catalan nationalists in Barcelona

By Alejandro López, 28 October 2019

Two weeks before the November 10 general elections in Spain, hundreds of thousands marched in Barcelona Saturday afternoon.

Right-wing terror in Germany: the responsibility of the Grand Coalition

By Johannes Stern, 22 October 2019

The responsibility for right-wing terror lies not only with the AfD, but also with the Grand Coalition and its political supporters in the Left Party and the Greens.

An open letter to all members of the German Association of University Professors and Lecturers

Stop the shift to the right at the universities!

the International Youth and Students for Social Equality, 19 October 2019

Bernhard Kempen is using his position as president of the German Association of University Professors and Lecturers to defend the right-wing extremist historian Jörg Baberowski.

Following terrorist attack in Germany, Jewish community strongly criticises police intervention in Halle

By Dietmar Gaisenkersting, 18 October 2019

The fact remains that the injured terrorist was able to escape in a car even though the police units were armed and had blocked the road.

Right-wing networks in the German state exposed

By Peter Schwarz, 18 October 2019

Extreme Security brings together a wealth of material about violent neo-Nazi groups and right-wing extremist networks in the police, the legal system, the Bundeswehr and the secret service.

French President Macron launches Islamophobic campaign after Paris police office attack

By Anthony Torres, 15 October 2019

Macron declared that preventing such attacks required a permanent atmosphere of anti-Islamic denunciations.

Large Berlin solidarity protests against anti-Semitism and right-wing terrorism.

By our reporters, 14 October 2019

This weekend’s protests underscored, once again, the widespread opposition that exists to the return of fascism in Germany.

Thousands protest in Germany against right-wing violence following fascist Yom Kippur attack

By Marianne Arens, 14 October 2019

Last Wednesday’s attack in Halle by a heavily armed fascist, anti-Semite, on the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur, has evoked horror and a wave of solidarity protests against right-wing violence.

Right-wing extremist network behind fascist synagogue attack in Germany

By Ulrich Rippert, 12 October 2019

The reality is that the “ideological inciters” of the right-wing terrorist attack in Halle hold top positions within the state and security apparatus, the intelligence agencies, the military and the federal government.

Right-wing extremist network behind fascist synagogue attack in Germany

By Ulrich Rippert, 11 October 2019

The reality is that the “ideological inciters” of the right-wing terrorist attack in Halle hold top positions within the state and security apparatus, the intelligence agencies, the military and the federal government.

German Nazi murders two in Yom Kippur Synagogue attack

By Johannes Stern, 10 October 2019

The Nazi assault on the Halle synagogue is aimed at demonstrating that anti-Semitism is, once again, a significant political force in Germany.

Disgraced academic Noah Carl spearheads far-right campaign on UK campuses

By Thomas Scripps, 7 October 2019

Eugenicist Carl has raised over $100,000 to begin a legal appeal against the St. Edmund’s College decision to rescind his appointment, on the grounds of wrongful dismissal.

Theatres in Germany take a stand against the far right

By Verena Nees, 4 October 2019

A number of plays by the Austrian-Hungarian dramatist and novelist Ödön von Horváth took a clear stand against the rise of the Nazis and assume new relevance today.

Ahead of state election in German state of Thuringia

Left Party Minister President Bodo Ramelow lauds the right-wing CDU

By Johannes Stern, 3 October 2019

With its right-wing and pro-capitalist policies, the Left Party, whose predecessors reintroduced capitalism into East Germany 30 years ago, bears major responsibility for the rise of the far-right.

The fascist network behind the murder of Walter Lübcke

By Peter Schwarz, 25 September 2019

Three months after the murder of Kassel’s regional president, there is mounting evidence that the Christian Democratic politician was the victim of an extreme right-wing network reaching deep into the state security apparatus.

UK government, police prevent coroner’s inquest into Manchester Arena bombing

By Robert Stevens, 20 September 2019

The coroner admits that the government and police are withholding information that “relates to the issue of whether the attack by Salman Abedi could have been prevented by the authorities.”

UK “justice” system tortures Julian Assange, treats fascist Tommy Robinson with kid gloves

By Thomas Scripps, 19 September 2019

The polar opposite treatment of Assange and Robinson by the British state underscores the bogus character of attempts by the far right to equate the two.

“Protecting the European way of life” and “a stronger Europe in the world”

New EU Commission to intensify militarism and attacks on refugees

By Will Morrow, 16 September 2019

The European bourgeoisie is shifting so far to the right that it is dispensing even with hypocritical “humanitarian” titles that it previously bestowed on its right-wing policies.

Election in Austria: Freedom Party demonstrates its close links to the Identitarian movement

By Markus Salzmann, 16 September 2019

The speech delivered by an experienced FPÖ official to a group of several dozen neo-Nazis, shortly before the election, sends a clear signal.

Fascism and militarism characterise debate in the German Bundestag

By Johannes Stern, 13 September 2019

While opposition to war and fascism is enormous among workers and youth, even 80 years after the beginning of World War II, the ruling class is returning to its authoritarian, militaristic and racist traditions.