Fascism

Millions of German taxpayers to finance far right propaganda

By Peter Schwarz, 24 February 2021

The German government is preparing to give 70 million euros a year to a foundation run by the far-right Alternative for Germany.

The right-wing extremist murders in Hanau, Germany, one year on

By Marianne Arens, 21 February 2021

One year after the Hanau murders, when right-wing extremist Tobias Rathjen killed nine strangers—eight men and one woman aged between 20 and 37—the background to this crime has still not been clarified.

Pentagon report reveals growth of fascistic networks within US military

By Jacob Crosse, 20 February 2021

The October 2020 report to the House and Senate Armed Service Committees provides details of the extent of far-right forces within the US military.

Prosecutors announce new charges against Proud Boys in connection with January 6 assault on US Capitol

By Jacob Crosse, 17 February 2021

In the wake of the Senate impeachment trial debacle and continuing revelations of ties between the far-right groups that led the insurrection and Trump’s closest allies, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi announced that she would push for the creation of a 9/11 Commission-like bipartisan body to investigate the attempted coup.

Democrats’ impeachment cover-up leaves coup-plotter Trump emboldened

By Andre Damon, 14 February 2021

The Democrats deliberately protected Trump’s co-conspirators, including the Republican House and Senate members who sought to overturn the election and those forces within the state who worked with Trump to orchestrate a stand-down of federal forces.

French neo-fascist Le Pen, interior minister debate anti-Muslim policies

By Alex Lantier, 13 February 2021

In the debate, Interior Minister Darmanin attacked Le Pen from the right, for not supporting his fascistic “anti-separatist” law and being “soft” on Islam.

Germany’s “Network for Academic Freedom”: A network for Hitler’s rehabilitation

By Peter Schwarz, 13 February 2021

On February 3, 70 German academics founded the “Network for Academic Freedom,” which has received widespread publicity in the mainstream media.

Wisconsin judge sides with fascists and denies motion for rearrest and bail increase for killer Rittenhouse

By Kevin Reed, 12 February 2021

In a virtual hearing in Kenosha, Wisconsin, on Thursday, Judge Bruce Schroeder ruled against the request by prosecutors to issue a warrant for the rearrest of fascist shooter Kyle Rittenhouse after he violated the terms of his bail conditions.

PSOE-Podemos facilitates fascist attacks on migrants in Canary Islands

By Alice Summers, 11 February 2021

In leaked WhatsApp chats and videos, neo-fascists discussed plans to kill and maim migrant workers interned on Spain’s Canary Islands.

Black Legion (1937): American fascism, then and now

By Joanne Laurier, 11 February 2021

Black Legion is a 1937 political crime drama, featuring Humphrey Bogart, which deals with a fascist movement active in the 1930s in the industrial Midwest. It has considerable pertinence today.

Plea deal with Trudeau’s would-be assassin continues Canadian state’s cover-up of far-right attack

By Roger Jordan, 11 February 2021

Despite Hurren having threatened Trudeau and having been discovered armed to the teeth on the grounds of his temporary residence, the prosecution chose to exclude from the trial any consideration of the army reservist’s plans to kill, harm or even “arrest” the Prime Minister.

Videos tie Trump crony Roger Stone to Proud Boys indicted in Capitol assault

By Jacob Crosse, 8 February 2021

Video footage has emerged confirming that Roger Stone, the longtime political crony of Donald Trump, was in close contact with Proud Boy leaders in the run-up to the January 6 assault on the Capitol.

What was Eduardo Bolsonaro doing in Washington during the January 6 coup?

By Tomas Castanheira, 6 February 2021

Eduardo’s arrival in the US on January 4 was reported as a “surprise visit” to the White House at the invitation of Ivanka Trump, daughter of the former US president.

Federal indictments allege coordinated planning by Proud Boys in January 6 coup attempt

By Jacob Crosse, 6 February 2021

At least eight Proud Boys have been charged for their role in the fascist assault on Congress.

Location of fascist shooter Kyle Rittenhouse concealed from the courts with support of Kenosha Police Department

By Kevin Reed, 5 February 2021

According to documents filed by lawyers for Rittenhouse, a Kenosha Police captain advised attorneys that the shooter’s real address “absolutely should not” be provided upon his release, a violation of his bail terms.

Ocasio-Cortez reveals harrowing details of fascist assault on January 6: “I thought I was going to die”

By Jacob Crosse, 3 February 2021

While Ocasio-Cortez spoke for an hour and half on the extreme danger she and others faced during January 6 assault, the Democratic leadership remains silent on ongoing threats against their members.

Socialist Equality Party (US) National Secretary Joseph Kishore interviewed on Amped Up podcast

1 February 2021

Kishore spoke on the political crisis in the US, the rise of fascism, the Democratic Party and the fight for socialism.

999 Citing storming of US Capitol, Canada's parliament demands banning of far-right Proud Boys

1 February 2021

Trump’s acting secretary of defense disarmed D.C. National Guard 48 hours before the fascist assault

By Jacob Crosse, 31 January 2021

Despite ample intelligence and public postings warning of far-right armed violence, Acting Defense Secretary Christopher Miller forbade the use of weapons or riot control measures to safeguard the Capitol.

Neo-Nazis gather on Australia Day weekend for cross-burning

By Oscar Grenfell, 30 January 2021

Fascist networks are increasingly emboldened amid a deepening social and economic crisis and the promotion of far-right forces by sections of the political establishment.

Court rules Spanish fascist regime did not commit crimes against humanity

By Alejandro López, 30 January 2021

The Constitutional Court ruling is a warning: If the crimes of Fascism are being rehabilitated, it is because sections of the ruling class are plotting a pre-emptive counter-revolution.

999 Jimmy Dore appeal for unity with neo-Nazis

28 January 2021

Fascistic Proud Boy leader Enrique Tarrio revealed to be “prolific” FBI informant

By Jacob Crosse, 28 January 2021

The report comes amid new revelations of high-level coordination between Trump’s inner circle and Republican politicians on the eve of the attempted coup.

The rise of financial parasitism and the emergence of fascism

By Nick Beams, 26 January 2021

Any assertion that the ruling classes as a whole and the dominant financial oligarchy have no need for fascist bands, let alone a coup, because they are continuing to make money, ignores both the lessons of history and the explosive contradictions within the very heart of American capitalism and its financial system.

Club For Growth billionaires finance fascist Republican politicians

By Jacob Crosse, 25 January 2021

Far-right politicians who supported Trump’s efforts to overturn the election received millions in donations from the billionaire-backed organization.

For a full, immediate investigation into death threats against Kshama Sawant!

By Statement of the Socialist Equality Party, 23 January 2021

The threats to assassinate Socialist Alternative leader and Seattle City Councilmember Kshama Sawant came from a city government email address. The city must take all necessary measures to protect Sawant, her family and her aides.

Threat of fascistic coup grows in Brazil amid COVID vaccination failure

By Tomas Castanheira, 23 January 2021

“We the military are the last obstacle to socialism. Who decides whether a people will live in democracy or dictatorship is their Armed Forces,” declared fascistic President Bolsonaro.

Neo-Nazi arms networks spreading across Europe

By Anthony Torres, 20 January 2021

In the weeks before and since Donald Trump’s January 6 fascist coup attempt in Washington, neo-Nazi circles were trafficking large quantities of weapons in Europe.

Trump coup attempt highlights official promotion of far-right in Australia

By Oscar Grenfell, 19 January 2021

The Morrison government’s refusal to condemn Trump’s coup attempt is bound up with the promotion of an extreme right-wing milieu in Australia.

The Trump coup and the rise of fascism: Where is America going?

By David North, 19 January 2021

This essay is based on the transcript of the remarks made by David North, the chairman of the international editorial board of the World Socialist Web Site and national chairman of the Socialist Equality Party (US), in opening an online discussion held January 17 on the significance of the fascist assault on the Capitol in Washington D.C. on January 6, 2021.

Democrats intensify calls for “unity” in aftermath of fascistic insurrection in Washington D.C.

By Jacob Crosse, 18 January 2021

The Democrats’ calls for “unity” come as more revelations confirm the high-level coordination between Capitol Police, the FBI, and the military in facilitating the storming of the Capitol on January 6.

Stop the cover-up of Trudeau’s attempted assassination!

Release all internal investigations into last July’s Rideau Hall attack!

By Roger Jordan, 13 January 2021

Full disclosure of everything known about the army reservist Hurren’s attack and the activities of the far-right groups with which he was associated is necessary to alert and mobilize the working class against the mounting threat to its democratic rights.

999 More info emerges about Trump coup attempt

11 January 2021

Bolsonaro endorses Trump coup, threatens to do same in Brazil’s 2022 election

By Miguel Andrade, 11 January 2021

It is no secret that the fascistic Bolsonaro sees in the January 6 putsch a blueprint for his own takeover in 2022.

New Zealand inquiry covers up police dismissal of anti-Muslim threats prior to 2019 terror attack

By Tom Peters, 11 January 2021

The royal commission accepted all the claims by Australian and New Zealand agencies that they could not have prevented the Christchurch terror attack, and dismissed evidence to the contrary.

Amid fascist coup in Washington, Spanish officers intensify far-right plotting

By Alejandro López, 9 January 2021

As Trump attempted a coup in Washington, Spanish officers wrote to Defence Minister Margarita Robles, demanding she “change the course” of the elected government.

Macron government advisor meets with neofascist Marion Marechal Le Pen

By Jacques Valentin, 6 January 2021

The French daily Le Monde revealed that Bruno Roger-Petit, an advisor to President Emmanuel Macron, met for lunch with Marion Maréchal on October 14.

Remove coup plotter Trump immediately!

By Patrick Martin and David North, 6 January 2021

Thousands of Trump supporters have stormed the Capitol and halted the congressional certification of Trump’s defeat in the presidential election.

Spanish officers plot fascist coup to impose “herd immunity” COVID-19 policy

By Alejandro López and Alex Lantier, 31 December 2020

The “left populist” Podemos party and its ruling social-democratic allies are hushing up active plotting for a coup that has taken place throughout virtually the entire year.

Why was the 2019 New Zealand terror attack not prevented?

By Tom Peters, 31 December 2020

The royal commission’s findings that fascist Brenton Tarrant could not have been stopped from killing 51 people in Christchurch, and that he had no connections with far-right groups, are not believable.

Washington state judge blocks release of public records in the police killing of Michael Reinoehl

By Kevin Reed, 30 December 2020

Thurston County Superior Court Judge Carol Murphy ruled in favor of a motion by the sheriff’s office to stop the release of police records about the execution of Portland protester Michael Reinoehl on September 3.

Fascists enter parliament as COVID-19 devastates Romania

By Andrei Tudora and Tina Zamfir, 30 December 2020

The ex-Stalinist Social-Democratic Party has provided material and political support for the rise of fascism while supporting the government’s “herd immunity” policy.

Active-duty Spanish officers hail retired officers’ fascist calls for mass murder

By Alejandro López, 29 December 2020

Despite the PSOE-Podemos government’s denials, calls by retired officers for a fascist coup and mass murder of left-wing voters have broad support among serving officers.

Armed fascists storm Oregon state Capitol building

By Jacob Crosse, 23 December 2020

Several hundred far-right anti-lockdown protesters, led by the fascist patriot Prayer group, attempted to occupy the Oregon Capitol on Monday, where a closed session of the legislature was discussing measures related to the coronavirus pandemic.

Active-duty Spanish soldiers chant fascist songs in online videos

By Alejandro López, 21 December 2020

This underscores the criminal role of the Socialist Party (PSOE)-Podemos government, which downplayed fascist sentiment in the army.

Trump held White House meeting on martial law plan to overturn election

By Patrick Martin, 21 December 2020

The president and his aides discussed the possibility of declaring martial law and rerunning the presidential election in key states during a meeting Friday in the Oval Office.

Editor of New Zealand’s major corporate think tank exposed as a bigot

By Tom Peters, 15 December 2020

Nathan Smith, chief editor of the New Zealand Initiative and a major writer for the National Business Review, ran a personal blog featuring anti-Semitic and anti-Muslim diatribes.

Trump supporters rampage in DC after Supreme Court rejects Texas election challenge

14 December 2020

Royal commission into New Zealand terror attack whitewashes government agencies

By Tom Peters, 10 December 2020

The commission’s report asserts that despite many warnings of far-right violence, the massacre which killed 51 people at two Christchurch mosques could not have been prevented; it calls for more powers and resources for the intelligence agencies.

Germany’s Christian Democrats close ranks with the far-right Alternative for Germany

By Peter Schwarz, 10 December 2020

Nine months before the next federal election, the CDU is cozying up to the AfD. This is the issue at the heart of the government crisis in the eastern German state of Saxony-Anhalt.

Trump supporters stage armed protest at home of Michigan secretary of state

By Patrick Martin, 8 December 2020

Taking their cue from Trump, far-right supporters have threatened violence against officials in swing states where Trump is seeking to overturn the popular vote for Biden.

999 Izquierda Diario downplays Spanish coup plots

7 December 2020

Trump incites fascist violence in Georgia

By Patrick Martin, 7 December 2020

In his first rally speech since his defeat in the November 2020 presidential election, Trump called for overturning the election result, demanded “revenge” against his political opponents and spoke about sending “the military in” to “radical left” cities.

Alternative for Germany shifts further to the right

By Peter Schwarz, 5 December 2020

The AfD is despised among wide layers of the population and has fallen well below 10 percent support in many opinion polls. Their influence is secured thanks above all to the established parties, and the official “left” in particular.

Podemos denies mounting danger of fascist military coup in Spain

By Alejandro López and Alex Lantier, 5 December 2020

This is a politically criminal attempt to lull workers and youth to sleep as anger mounts at officers’ calls to support fascism and murder of millions of left-wing voters in Spain.

Spanish generals call for mass murder in fascistic leaked WhatsApp chats

By Alejandro López, 4 December 2020

Dozens of high-ranking retired officers participated in a WhatsApp chat in which they proclaimed their loyalty to fascism and called to murder tens of millions of people.

Leipzig University resorts to authoritarian methods to push through meeting with far-right Professor Jörg Baberowski

By Christoph Vandreier, 4 December 2020

The meeting was aimed at bolstering the standing of a professor whose playing down of Nazi crimes and xenophobic incitement against foreigners at universities has provoked huge protests throughout Germany.

New Zealand inquiry suppresses evidence about fascist terror attack

By Tom Peters, 3 December 2020

The royal commission’s report into the massacre of 51 people in Christchurch in March 2019 by fascist Brenton Tarrant is destined to be a whitewash, with crucial evidence being kept secret.

Facebook speech falsely claims massive vote fraud

Donald Trump’s Mein Kampf

By Patrick Martin, 3 December 2020

Trump is deliberately inciting fascist forces through his baseless claims of a “stolen election.”

Interior Minister in German state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania forced to resign over ties to neo-Nazi network

By Gregor Link, 25 November 2020

Research from the TAZ daily and Der Spiegel magazine revealed in the days leading up to his resignation that Caffier bought a Glock handgun in early 2018 from the right-wing extremist Frank T.–allegedly so he could go hunting.

21 November 2020

Trump holds White House meeting with Michigan Republicans in bid to overturn Biden victory

By Barry Grey, 21 November 2020

More than two weeks after the November 3 election, President Donald Trump and the Republican Party continue to refuse to accept the results of the presidential vote. Nor can it be assumed that they ultimately will.

Fascist Kenosha shooter Kyle Rittenhouse released after posting $2 million bail

By Jacob Crosse, 21 November 2020

The bail money was raised by defense attorneys and generously supported by Republican party donors.

Pentagon shakeup aimed at paving path to Trump coup

By Bill Van Auken, 21 November 2020

The extra-constitutional attempts to nullify the US elections and overturn basic democratic rights cannot be accomplished without massive state repression.

Former Sheriff David Clarke calls for Proud Boys chapter in Wisconsin

By Chase Lawrence, 19 November 2020

Clarke spoke at a Milwaukee County Republican event on Saturday, along with Republican State Senator Chris Kapenga.

Labour Party reinstates Jeremy Corbyn after suspension over antisemitism comments

The anti-Semitism witch-hunt and the failure of Corbynism

By Chris Marsden, 18 November 2020

This speech was delivered by Socialist Equality Party National Secretary Chris Marsden to a public meeting titled, “The Blairites’ anti-Semitism witch-hunt and the failure of Corbynism,” held on November 15, 2020.

Neo-Nazis march in Germany on anniversary of anti-Jewish November Pogroms

By Peter Schwarz, 14 November 2020

On the night of November 9–10, 1938, Nazis across Germany torched synagogues, looted Jewish businesses, murdered hundreds of Jews and sent tens of thousands more to concentration camps.

Leading NYPD officer caught posting racist, fascistic messages online

By Shuvu Batta, 13 November 2020

James Kobel, a 28-year veteran of the NYPD, was suspended from his post as head of the NYPD Equal Employment Opportunity Division.

State attorney general reports:

Michigan conspirators planned to storm capitol, conduct livestream executions, lock legislators inside and burn building down

By Eric London, 13 November 2020

A Michigan attorney general filing states the plotters planned “to take hostages, execute tyrants and have it televised.”

Far-right demonstration in Leipzig, Germany, supported by judiciary, police and government

By Peter Schwarz, 12 November 2020

Police in Leipzig not only permitted far-right demonstrators to run riot in the city, but they also actively supported them.

Federal agents arrest New York man for threatening to “exterminate” Democrats, protesters

By Jacob Crosse, 12 November 2020

Brian Maiorana, 54, in expletive-laden and anti-Semitic online tirades, threatened to kill opponents of Trump, according to a federal affidavit.

Wisconsin man charged with providing assault rifle to Kenosha shooter Rittenhouse

By Kevin Reed, 11 November 2020

Nineteen-year-old Dominick Black has been arrested and charged with intentionally providing a dangerous weapon to Kyle Rittenhouse, 17, who shot and killed two protesters with the rifle during protests against police violence in Kenosha on August 25.

Arkansas police chief resigns after calling on social media for execution of “Marxist Democrats”

By Jacob Crosse, 11 November 2020

Lang Holland is the latest high-ranking cop forced to resign after calling for violence against opponents of Trump.

Armed Trump supporters arrested at Philadelphia counting site as Republicans echo Trump’s claims of vote fraud

By Jacob Crosse, 7 November 2020

While remaining behind in several key states, Trump continues to claim fraud while seeking to incite his fascistic supporters.

Jewish cemetery in Michigan desecrated with Trump campaign slogans on eve of election

By Jacob Crosse, 4 November 2020

The vandalism comes amidst Trump’s promotion of fascistic militia elements as part of his conspiracy to steal the election.

Kenosha shooter Kyle Rittenhouse extradited to Wisconsin

By By Kevin Reed, 2 November 2020

The 17-year-old vigilante was being held in an Illinois juvenile detention facility on charges of gunning down two protesters in Kenosha, Wisconsin in August, and wounding a third.

Pianist Igor Levit joins rally against far-right Alternative for Germany in Potsdam

By Ulrich Rippert, 2 November 2020

Only days after several German newspapers published vicious denunciations of Igor Levit, the world renowned pianist participated in a rally against the far-right Alternative for Germany (AfD) in Potsdam.

Kentucky State Police training documents approvingly cited Adolf Hitler

By Jacob Crosse, 2 November 2020

Exposed last week by a high school student newspaper, the slideshow reveals the mentality and training undergirding police departments across the US and internationally.

Priceless artefacts vandalised in Berlin museums

By Stefan Steinberg, 29 October 2020

While the police investigate “in all directions,” there is considerable evidence to indicate the involvement of far-right forces in the attacks.

Macron administration wages far-right campaign against “Islamo-leftism”

By Will Morrow, 28 October 2020

The term “Islamo-leftism” is used to define anyone who defends Muslims’ democratic rights and opposes French imperialism as accomplices of terrorism.

An audio adaptation of Sinclair Lewis’s It Can’t Happen Here: Fascism comes to America

By Carlos Delgado, 27 October 2020

The production, a “radio play” adaptation of Sinclair Lewis’s 1935 novel, depicts the US’s descent into dictatorship after the election of a demagogue.

Right-wing press in Germany steps up attacks on pianist Igor Levit

By Ulrich Rippert, 26 October 2020

The Süddeutsche Zeitung editorial board’s initial defence of its article, as well as subsequent articles in Die Welt, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Neue Zürcher Zeitung, reveal that these leading newspapers share essentially the same line as the far right Alternative for Germany.

Electoral defeat in Vienna for Austria’s far-right Freedom Party

By Markus Salzmann, 23 October 2020

The extreme right-wing Freedom Party (FPÖ) has suffered a major defeat in the state and municipal elections in the Austrian capital of Vienna on October 11.

Trump storms out of interview when asked about ties to Michigan conspiracy

By Eric London, 23 October 2020

By walking out of the interview with 60 Minutes’ Leslie Stahl, Trump revealed that he views the fascist plot as a massive political liability while a new report confirms the threat of fascist election violence.

Australian pseudo-left denies fascist danger in US presidential election crisis

By Oscar Grenfell, 19 October 2020

Socialist Alternative is attempting to chloroform the working class, insisting that the American ruling class would never resort to dictatorial rule.

Who are the New York Watchmen?

By Alex Findijs, 19 October 2020

The New York Watchmen are a newly formed right-wing militia with close ties to Michael Caputo, the Assistant Secretary of Health and Human Services for the Trump Administration.

Role of Virginia fascists in conspiracy to kill Northam and Whitmer comes into focus

By Eric London, 17 October 2020

Many questions remain as to the possible role of Virginia Boogaloo members and other fascist groups in the expanding plot against Democratic governors.

Pseudo-left promotes dangerous illusions following criminal conviction of Greek fascists

By Peter Schwarz, 16 October 2020

Greece’s supreme court ruled that the neo-fascist party Chrysi Avgi (Golden Dawn) was a criminal organisation, and convicted 68 members on charges including violence, membership in a criminal organisation, grievous bodily harm, and illegal possession of weapons.

US press reports confirm killing of Portland anti-fascist was targeted police assassination

By Patrick Martin, 15 October 2020

Trump raised the killing of Reinoehl as a great achievement during the first presidential debate with former Vice President Joe Biden. The Democratic candidate made no objection.

Trump’s “herd immunity” policy and right-wing terror

By Andre Damon, 14 October 2020

On Tuesday, Newsweek reported that two Trump administration officials said the White House supports the Great Barrington Declaration, a statement advocating for the mass infection of the population with COVID-19 through a policy of “herd immunity.”

Eric Trump planned rally at gun store where conspirator worked

Questions mount about Trump’s ties to Michigan fascist plotters

By Eric London, 13 October 2020

Today, Eric Trump was scheduled to speak at Hudson Valley Guns in New Huron, Michigan, where one of the 13 men arrested last Thursday for plotting to kidnap and murder Gretchen Whitmer was employed.

Colombia’s ex-president Uribe freed from house arrest to lead right-wing repression

By Andrea Lobo, 13 October 2020

The release was the result of pressures from President Iván Duque’s administration, as well as from the White House.

The Michigan conspiracy, Trump, and the 2020 election

By Eric London, 9 October 2020

Donald Trump is engaged in a plot to deploy fascist militia to overturn the outcome of the election. The working class must demand answers in order to expose and stop the conspiracy.

German court frees right-wing extremist accused of complicity in assassination of Walter Lübcke

By Peter Schwarz, 8 October 2020

The neo-Nazi Markus Hartmann, who was accused in the trial for the murder of German regional politician Walter Lübcke, was freed from custody last Thursday.

German state and political parties promote anti-Semitism

By Peter Schwarz, 8 October 2020

Seventy-five years after the holocaust, anti-Semitic violence is on the rise in Germany.

Thirteen arrested in far-advanced pro-Trump conspiracy to murder Michigan’s governor and overthrow the state government

By Patrick Martin, 8 October 2020

The ultra-right conspiracy in Michigan is part of a national plot inspired by the US president to defy the election results and stay in power.

Trump copies Hitler

6 October 2020

A video tweeted by President Trump depicting his return to the White House on October 5, 2020 after being hospitalized with COVID-19 was clearly modeled after Hitler's arrival at the 1934 Nazi Party Congress in the Nazi film Triumph of the Will.

The return of the Hohenzollern imperial dynasty to Germany

By Ulrich Rippert, 6 October 2020

The impudent demands of the Hohenzollerns aim at not only the shameless enrichment of the former ruling family, but also its return to a place “at the top” of German society.

In another judicial travesty, Indian court exonerates BJP leaders in razing of Babri Masjid

By Deepal Jayasekera, 2 October 2020

Wednesday’s verdict will embolden the Hindu right, Narendra Modi and the BJP in their communal provocations and assault on the social and democratic rights of India’s toilers.

The Asgaard security firm: Neo-Nazi networks in German army and police

By Jan Ritter, 29 September 2020

Asgaard advertises among and employs former and active police officers and soldiers, who were described by “Kontraste” as highly specialised men.