The 2011 Egyptian Revolution

Wave of anti-government protests across Egypt

By Jean Shaoul, 29 September 2020

Protests have been small but testify to the social and economic powder keg over which the El-Sisi regime presides.

Hosni Mubarak, US-backed dictator of Egypt for 30 years, dead at 91

By Bill Van Auken, 26 February 2020

Overthrown in 2011 by a mass revolt of the Egyptian people, he died with his criminal legacy secured by a military regime that is even more repressive than the one he headed.

The freeing of Hosni Mubarak and the lessons of the Egyptian Revolution

By Johannes Stern, 25 March 2017

How is it possible that six years after the Egyptian revolution, nothing appears to be left of it, and Mubarak, the ugly face of the old regime, is free once again to show himself in public?

Five years of the Egyptian Revolution

By Johannes Stern, 25 January 2016

The basic problem of the Egyptian Revolution was to establish the political independence of the working class from all of the different bourgeois forces.

Three years of the Egyptian revolution

By Johannes Stern, 25 January 2014

On January 25, 2011, mass revolutionary struggles erupted in Egypt against the regime of President Hosni Mubarak.

The Egyptian Revolution and the crisis of revolutionary leadership

By Johannes Stern, 2 July 2013

Masses of Egyptian workers and youth are once again taking to the streets, this time demanding the ouster of Islamist President Mohamed Mursi.

For workers’ power in Egypt!

By Johannes Stern and Joseph Kishore, 30 January 2013

As the second anniversary of the overthrow of dictator Hosni Mubarak approaches, the Egyptian working class is again being driven into revolutionary struggle.

Two years of the Egyptian Revolution

By Johannes Stern, 25 January 2013

The working class must resolve the historic problems of political leadership and perspective which are posed by the Egyptian revolution.

First round of Egyptian parliamentary elections begins

By Alex Lantier, 30 November 2011

Voting in parliamentary elections began Monday and continued yesterday in nine of Egypt’s 27 governorates.

The Egyptian revolution turns against the military

By Johannes Stern, 28 November 2011

The renewed revolutionary upsurge in Egypt is the working class’s verdict on the Egyptian military’s claims to be leading a “democratic transition” away from the dictatorship of President Hosni Mubarak.

Millions demand downfall of US-backed Egyptian junta

By Johannes Stern, 26 November 2011

On Friday millions of workers and youth protested against military rule in Egypt and demanded the downfall of the US-backed Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) junta.

Mass protests intensify against Egyptian junta

By Alex Lantier, 24 November 2011

Clashes continued yesterday in cities across Egypt, on the fifth day of mass protests demanding the overthrow of the US-backed Egyptian military junta.

Millions protest to demand overthrow of US-backed Egyptian junta

By Johannes Stern, 23 November 2011

On Tuesday millions of workers and youth staged protests and strikes all over Egypt, demanding the downfall of Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and the US-backed Egyptian junta.

Renewed uprising signals turning point in Egyptian revolution

By Bill Van Auken, 22 November 2011

The revolutionary upheavals that began in Egypt last January 25 have reached a crucial turning point in which the decisive question is the independent political mobilization of the working class in the struggle for power.

Egyptian military junta carries out deadly crackdown on protesters

By Johannes Stern, 21 November 2011

The US-backed military junta in Egypt carried out a violent crackdown on protesters over the weekend, killing several people and injuring more than 700.

The counterrevolutionary role of the Egyptian pseudo-left

By Alex Lantier and Johannes Stern, 21 November 2011

This article analyzes the role of the pseudo-left organizations in opposing a struggle by the working class to bring down the military junta in Egypt.

Protests mount against power grab by Egyptian military

By Patrick Martin, 8 November 2011

A growing popular movement has erupted against the attempt by the military council to entrench its rule.

Egyptian junta defends massacre, launches fresh attacks on strikers

By Johannes Stern, 14 October 2011

Dozens of eyewitness reports and video footage on YouTube prove that the junta deliberately unleashed a brutal massacre, using live ammunition and armoured vehicles to kill and crush peaceful protesters.

US-backed Egyptian junta massacres peaceful protesters

By Johannes Stern, 11 October 2011

The Egyptian military is attacking protests as mass opposition to the regime grows.

Egypt’s “independent” unions seek to end strikes, prop up junta

By Johannes Stern, 1 October 2011

The renewed upsurge of the Egyptian working class sparked by the disastrous social conditions and a deepening economic crisis is sending shock waves through the Egyptian ruling elite.

The political tasks arising from the Egyptian Revolution

By Johannes Stern, 29 September 2011

On September 17, the Partei für Soziale Gleichheit (Socialist Equality Party—PSG) held a European workers rally against racism, war and social cutbacks at the conclusion of the party’s election campaign in Berlin.

Egyptian elites demand end to strikes

By Johannes Stern, 28 September 2011

Bourgeois politicians, trade union leaders and journalists are demanding an end to strikes in Egypt and are warning of the threat of “another revolution”.

Political tasks of the Egyptian Revolution

By Johannes Stern, 13 September 2011

In recent days a new wave of strikes and protests against the US-backed military junta has swept over Egypt.

Egyptian junta declares state of alert after storming of Israeli embassy

By Johannes Stern, 12 September 2011

The US-backed military junta in Egypt has responded with large-scale violence after protesters stormed the Israeli embassy in Giza, near Cairo.

Mass protests in Egypt against US-backed military junta

By Johannes Stern, 10 September 2011

Egyptian workers and youth mounted mass protests in cities across Egypt yesterday, after a new wave of strikes swept the country in recent days. In Cairo tens of thousands of protesters gathered in iconic Tahrir Square, one of the epicenters of the Egyptian revolution.

Egyptian military junta deepens ties to NATO-backed Libyan opposition

By Johannes Stern, 9 September 2011

In recent weeks, the US-backed military junta in Egypt has increased its support for Libya’s National Transitional Council (NTC).

The Egyptian revolution at a crossroads

By Johannes Stern and Alex Lantier, 4 August 2011

The forces of counterrevolution are mobilizing for an attempt to smash the movement unleashed by the working class’s overthrow of President Hosni Mubarak last February.

Egyptian military junta attacks sit-in on Tahrir Square

By Johannes Stern, 2 August 2011

Yesterday the Egyptian military and security forces attacked protesters on Tahrir Square in Cairo to clear it and bring protests to a halt.

Pseudo-left parties end Cairo sit-in after Islamist protest

By Johannes Stern and Alex Lantier, 1 August 2011

After Islamist groups dominated the July 29 protest in Cairo, official “opposition” parties announced they would suspend their sit-in in Tahrir Square.

Hundreds wounded in crackdown against antigovernment protests in Egypt

By our reporter, 25 July 2011

Thousands of protesters opposed to the US-backed military regime of General Mohammed Hussein Tantawi in Egypt clashed with pro-government thugs during demonstrations on Saturday.

Egyptian military delays election as opposition mounts

By Patrick Martin, 22 July 2011

The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces is seeking to remain in control of the Egyptian government.

Mass protests continue against Egyptian regime

By Niall Green, 16 July 2011

Huge protests took place across Egypt on Friday, as thousands gathered to oppose military government and demand the prosecution of officials.

Mass protests mark “Friday of Determination” in Egypt

By Jonathan Aswan and Alex Lantier, 9 July 2011

Cities across Egypt saw the largest demonstrations yesterday since the revolutionary struggles that forced the resignation of US-backed dictator Hosni Mubarak on February 11.

Mass protest in Egypt calls for “second revolution”

By Jonathan Aswan, 8 July 2011

Hundreds of thousands of workers and youth are expected to turn out to the streets today in protests dubbed “Friday of Persistence” or “The Revolution and the Poor first”.

Egyptians protest state defense of police violence

By Patrick Martin, 6 July 2011

Protests have erupted in Cairo, Suez and Alexandria demanding the jailing of police accused of large-scale violence during the revolutionary movement that forced out longtime dictator Hosni Mubarak.

Protests, strikes continue against military junta in Egypt

By Jonathan Aswan, 4 July 2011

On Friday tens of thousands of workers and youth went to the streets in at least five governorates in Egypt to denounce the politics of the US-backed military junta and its leader, Field Marshal Mohammed Hussein Tantawi.

Egyptian military carries out bloody crackdown on protests

By Joseph Kishore and Jonathan Aswan, 30 June 2011

Over one thousand have been injured in clashes that began Tuesday and continued into Wednesday morning, with protesters demanding the ouster of the Egyptian military regime.

US and Egyptian bourgeoisie close ranks as workers’ struggles continue

By Jonathan Aswan, 20 June 2011

In recent weeks and days, the revolutionary struggle of the Egyptian working class has witnessed a new upsurge.

Egypt’s military regime prepares clampdown on strike wave

By Harvey Thompson, 17 June 2011

The upsurge of industrial struggle by Egyptian workers that preceded the January revolution shows no sign of diminishing.

Egyptian bourgeoisie and pseudo-left oppose a “second revolution”

By Jonathan Aswan, 10 June 2011

On May 27, hundreds of thousands workers and youth demonstrated across Egypt against the military junta which took power after Mubarak's ouster on February 11.

Egyptian doctors threaten to renew strike

By Harvey Thompson, 3 June 2011

Hundreds of doctors marched from the doctors’ syndicate to the Egyptian Cabinet offices with their unmet demands on May 29, threatening to go back on strike.

Egypt’s “second revolution”

By Joseph Kishore, 31 May 2011

Demonstrations last Friday in Egypt were among the largest since the revolutionary movement of workers and youth forced out the longtime dictator Hosni Mubarak. They raise basic questions of political program and perspective.

Mass protests demand “second revolution” in Egypt

By Patrick Martin, 28 May 2011

Demonstrations Friday brought huge crowds back to Tahrir Square in Cairo and in dozens of other cities throughout Egypt.

Egyptian “left” parties seek alliance with bourgeoisie

By Johannes Stern, 21 May 2011

As the Egyptian revolution reaches a crucial turning point, a group of parties calling themselves “left” and even “socialist” have united to form an alliance with the bourgeoisie, which in turn backs the ruling military junta.

Nationwide doctors’ strike in Egypt

By Harvey Thompson, 13 May 2011

A nationwide doctors’ strike began May 10 in governmental clinics and hospitals.

Sectarian conflict in Cairo between Muslims and Coptic Christians

By Jean Shaoul, 11 May 2011

At least 12 people died Saturday night in sectarian fighting outside the Coptic Saint Mena Church in Imbaba, a Cairo suburb.

Growing wave of strikes in Egypt

By our correspondent, 5 May 2011

Strikes are continuing in numerous plants across Egypt in defiance of the military junta’s prohibition of strikes and protests.

Strikes and protests by Egyptian workers

By Harvey Thompson, 15 April 2011

Strikes and protests by workers across Egypt continued this week, with many calling for improved wages and working conditions while others attempted to block moves that would reduce their income or restrict their prospects.

Egyptian junta steps up violence as protests and strikes continue

By our correspondent, 14 April 2011

The non-ending stream of strikes and protests by Egyptian workers has unnerved the military junta, which is responding with increasing violence.

Mubarak and sons detained as Egypt’s military continues crackdown

By Bill Van Auken, 14 April 2011

Ousted dictator Hosni Mubarak and his two sons have been detained for 15 days while Egyptian prosecutors conduct an investigation into their multi-billion-dollar embezzlement and corruption.

Egyptian military storm peaceful protest in Tahrir Square

By our correspondent, 12 April 2011

Tens of thousands gathered in Cairo’s Tahrir Square chanted: “The people want the overthrow of the field marshal” and “the people want to overthrow the regime”.

Egyptian military kills protesters in Cairo

By Niall Green, 11 April 2011

In the early hours of Saturday morning, Egypt’s US-backed military junta launched a bloody attack on protesters in Cairo’s symbolic Tahrir Square.

Over one hundred thousand protest military rule in Egypt

By our correspondent, 4 April 2011

Strikes and demonstrations against deplorable working conditions are accompanying mounting protests against the anti-strike legislation and interim constitution of Egypt’s ruling military junta.

Protests against counter-revolution in Egypt

By a correspondent, 28 March 2011

The demonstrators who ousted President Hosni Mubarak now realise that the trust they had in the Egyptian army was misplaced and that their revolution is far from over.

Egyptian workers face US-backed counter-revolution

By Bill Van Auken, 25 March 2011

The promulgation this week in Egypt of a decree banning strikes and protests has laid bare the real character of the military-controlled regime that succeeded the US-backed dictator Hosni Mubarak.

Egyptian constitutional referendum passes amid low turnout

By Stefan Steinberg, 22 March 2011

The thoroughly fraudulent and undemocratic nature of Saturday’s referendum in Egypt was the declaration from the Supreme Military Council that in the event of a no vote it would impose its own constitution until a new one is drafted.

Hillary Clinton in Tahrir Square

By Bill Van Auken, 17 March 2011

US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton’s Middle East tour, capped by a stroll through Cairo’s Tahrir Square, presents an unparalleled profile in hypocrisy.

Protests continue against threat of counter-revolution in Egypt

By our reporter, 14 March 2011

Egypt’s new provisional government is complicit in violent tactics to bring about a counter-revolution.

Egyptian protesters storm secret police headquarters

By Patrick Martin, 8 March 2011

Thousands of people, many of them former prisoners and victims of torture, took action to preserve documents showing their abuse at the hands the State Security Investigations agency.

Egyptian military regime rolls out a new front man

By Patrick Martin, 5 March 2011

Bourgeois figures like Mohamed ElBaradei have hailed the appointment of the new prime minister, Essam Sharaf.

Egyptian prime minister resigns on eve of mass protest

By Alex Lantier, 4 March 2011

Egyptian Prime Minister Ahmed Shafiq resigned yesterday to avert a Million-Man March, scheduled by anti-regime protesters.

Police crackdown against protests in Egypt, Oman

By Patrick Martin, 28 February 2011

Egyptian military police attacked and beat protesters Saturday in Tahrir Square, the focal point of the mass popular movement that forced the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak two weeks ago.

New mass protests against US-backed regimes in Egypt and Yemen

By David Walsh, 26 February 2011

Protests took place Friday in Egypt and Yemen, as masses of people press onward in an effort to rid themselves of brutal, tyrannical regimes.

Notes on the Egyptian Revolution

By Nick Beams, 25 February 2011

The following report by Nick Beams, national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party (Australia), was delivered to an aggregate meeting in Sydney.

Egyptian junta clamps down on strikes

By Chris Marsden, 23 February 2011

Egypt’s military regime has threatened to illegalise strikes in the face of the ongoing social unrest in the aftermath of the removal of President Hosni Mubarak.

Mass celebrations in Egypt one week after Mubarak downfall

By Alex Lantier, 19 February 2011

Millions of people attended victory celebrations one week after a mass protests forced Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak from office.

Egyptian workers step up strike offensive

By Patrick Martin, 17 February 2011

Workers are defying appeals from the military command to go back to work.

Egyptian military commands a vast business empire

By Mike Head, 17 February 2011

Far from representing any democratic instrument, the military is a consciously counter-revolutionary force, determined to crush the workers’ uprising in order to defend its own immense business interests, as well as those of its pay masters in the US.

Egyptian military repeats demands for end to strike wave

By Patrick O’Connor, 16 February 2011

The army’s repeated statements since the ousting of President Hosni Mubarak reflect the acute fear with which the generals and the entire Egyptian ruling elite regard the developing movement of the working class.

Iran and the Egyptian revolution

By Bill Van Auken, 16 February 2011

The government of Iran, the right-wing Green Movement opposition and the Obama administration in Washington have all sought to invoke the developments in Egypt to further interests that have nothing to do with this revolutionary upsurge.

Strikes, workers’ protests spread throughout Egypt

By Patrick O’Connor, 15 February 2011

Large numbers of workers in Egypt’s main cities staged strikes and street demonstrations yesterday for better wages and working conditions, and the removal of corrupt state-enterprise managers promoted under Mubarak.

Mass protests spread in Middle East as Washington reassures Israel, Arab dictators

By Bill Van Auken, 15 February 2011

Inspired by the Egyptian people’s overthrow of Hosni Mubarak, protests continued to spread in the Middle East on Monday, as Washington scrambled to reassure Israel and pro-US regimes in the region of its continued support.

Egyptian military asserts authority as strikes, protests spread

By Andrea Peters, 14 February 2011

While suspending the constitution and parliament of the Mubarak dictatorship, the Egyptian military continues to uphold the 30-year-old emergency law that has served as the basis of political repression.

The Egyptian Revolution enters a new stage

By Alex Lantier, 14 February 2011

The Egyptian military’s communiqués make clear that it intends to divert and suppress the mass movement, while carrying out a tactical transfer of power to maintain the old regime.

Mubarak resignation staggers Obama administration

By Alex Lantier, 12 February 2011

Obama administration officials reacted to yesterday’s ouster of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak with hypocritical declarations of solidarity with the democratic aspirations of the Egyptian masses.

Mubarak resigns, military claims power in Egypt

By Tom Eley, 12 February 2011

Massive demonstrations and a growing strike wave forced the Friday resignation of Hosni Mubarak. While millions celebrated his ouster, power has been claimed by the military.

The downfall of Hosni Mubarak

By World Socialist Web Site Editorial Board, 12 February 2011

The World Socialist Web Site hails the downfall of Egyptian dictator Hosni Mubarak. As significant as this event is, however, it is only the beginning of this struggle.

Mubarak’s speech: only revolution can oust regime

By Bill Van Auken, 11 February 2011

With his speech on Thursday night, Egyptian dictator Hosni Mubarak threw down the gauntlet to the mass protests and growing strike wave that have rocked his regime for nearly three weeks.

Mubarak resigns, military claims power in Egypt

By Tom Eley, 11 February 2011

Massive demonstrations and a growing strike wave forced the Friday resignation of Hosni Mubarak. While millions celebrated his ouster, power has been claimed by the military.

Egyptian military tortured, “disappeared” thousands of demonstrators

By Tom Eley, 11 February 2011

Since demonstrations and strikes erupted against the Mubarak regime on January 25, the Egyptian military has arrested, tortured and “disappeared” thousands, according to reports from the Guardian newspaper and human rights organizations.

The downfall of Hosni Mubarak

By World Socialist Web Site Editorial Board, 11 February 2011

The World Socialist Web Site hails the downfall of Egyptian dictator Hosni Mubarak. As significant as this event is, however, it is only the beginning of this struggle.

Strikes and demonstrations spread across Egypt

By Patrick Martin, 10 February 2011

Factory workers, agricultural laborers and civil servants have joined the movement against Mubarak dictatorship.

The Egyptian working class moves to the forefront

By David North, 10 February 2011

During the past few days a steady stream of reports has confirmed the increasingly decisive role of the Egyptian working class in the struggle against the Mubarak regime.

Mass protests and strikes escalate as Egyptians reject “orderly transition”

By Bill Van Auken, 9 February 2011

Cairo’s Tahrir square was filled with its largest demonstration yet Tuesday as masses of Egyptians rejected the “orderly transition” through which the Obama administration and its principal ally, Omar Suleiman, are attempting to salvage the regime.

Omar Suleiman—longtime collaborator with Israel and US

By Patrick Martin, 9 February 2011

Diplomatic cables released by WikiLeaks show Suleiman’s collaboration in repression of the Palestinians and torture of CIA prisoners

Democrats on the Mubarak payroll

By Patrick Martin, 9 February 2011

Many well-connected Washington lobbyists are on retainer for the Egyptian government

Italian politicians fear spread of “Egyptian fever”

By Marianne Arens, 9 February 2011

The uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt are causing anxiety among Italian government and opposition politicians who fear “Egyptian fever” could spread to their side of the Mediterranean.

Munich Security Conference defends the Egyptian regime

By Peter Schwarz, 9 February 2011

The 47th Security Conference in Munich last weekend openly stood behind the hated Egyptian regime of Hosni Mubarak.

Egyptian protesters face mounting violence and repression

By Patrick Martin, 8 February 2011

Thousands of demonstrators remain camped in Cairo’s central Tahrir Square, defying threats of violence and a wave of arrests by the secret police of the Mubarak dictatorship.

Obama’s cold-blooded defense of Egyptian regime

By Bill Van Auken, 8 February 2011

The revolutionary events in Egypt have exposed the reactionary character of the Obama administration’s policy and its deep involvement in the conspiracies against the Egyptian people.

Imperialism and Egypt’s “democratic transition”

By Alex Lantier, 7 February 2011

The talks taking place between the Egyptian regime of President Hosni Mubarak, the Muslim Brotherhood, and the National Association for Change of Mohamed ElBaradei are a cynical fraud.

Egyptian regime begins US-backed talks with opposition parties

By Patrick O’Connor, 7 February 2011

The Obama administration has backed negotiations between the Mubarak regime and several Egyptian opposition parties, including the Muslim Brotherhood.

International demonstrations support Egyptian revolution

By Robert Stevens, 7 February 2011

Up to 2,000 people demonstrated in London Saturday during a day of international solidarity with the Egyptian people.

Massive anti-government protest on Egypt’s “day of departure”

By Chris Marsden, 5 February 2011

Friday’s “day of departure” was a massive display of opposition to the Mubarak regime. Over a million took to the streets of Cairo, defying government thugs, military cordons and ignoring the curfew.

WikiLeaks: Cables reveal connivance of US government with Mubarak dictatorship

By David Walsh, 5 February 2011

WikiLeaks released US State Department cables Thursday that add details to the picture of official US collaboration with the Egyptian regime of Hosni Mubarak, now under siege by an outraged population.

EU summit lines up with Washington on Egypt

By Ulrich Rippert, 5 February 2011

Events in Egypt are filling the European powers with dread. In almost knee-jerk fashion, they are seeking to close ranks with the Obama administration in Washington.

Oppose US-backed “transition” in Egypt

By Patrick Martin, 5 February 2011

The Obama administration seeks to derail the mass uprising and retain imperialist control by refurbishing the dictatorship.

Heroic resistance in Cairo to state-orchestrated repression

By Chris Marsden, 4 February 2011

Anti-government protesters in Cairo have fought back against the brutal attacks waged by the disguised police and paid thugs of the Mubarak regime.

Obama’s crocodile tears over Egypt’s violence

By Bill Van Auken, 4 February 2011

If Obama is crying crocodile tears now over the violence that has left hundreds dead and thousands wounded in Egypt, it is only because this violence has stopped working, and the Egyptian people continue to resist and struggle.

Deadly crackdown against Egyptian protesters

By Patrick O’Connor, 3 February 2011

President Hosni Mubarak mobilised thousands of pro-regime thugs, provocateurs and plain clothes police against anti-government demonstrators.