Book Reviews

Sinclair Lewis’s novel Main Street at 100

By James McDonald, 16 July 2020

This year marks the 100th anniversary of the publication of Main Street, the breakthrough work of an author who would become, in 1930, the first American awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.

The campaign to smear novelist Charles Dickens as a racist

By David Walsh, 10 July 2020

Dickens was one of the greatest novelists of the 19th century and a world-historical literary and cultural figure. In the English language, he is perhaps second only to William Shakespeare in enduring significance and popularity.

The Room Where it Happened: John Bolton’s account of the “palace coup” opposition to Trump

By Andre Damon, 26 June 2020

The book presents an account of the policy differences between John Bolton and Donald Trump that broadly reflect the policy differences between the president and dominant sections of the American state apparatus that led to Trump’s impeachment.

Yellow Star, Red Star

Capitalist counterrevolution and the rise of fascism in southeastern Europe since 1989

By Clara Weiss, 20 June 2020

Though fatally flawed by its equation of Stalinism with communism, and the author’s reluctance to discuss the social character of the restoration of capitalism, the book exposes the close relationship between capitalist counterrevolution and the rise of fascist forces.

Book Review

Every Drop of Blood: The Momentous Second Inauguration of Abraham Lincoln

By Shannon Jones, 11 June 2020

Lincoln’s Second Inaugural speech is considered, along with the Gettysburg Address, one of the most important in US history.

Pessimism and the Unhuman: The Overstory by Richard Powers

By James McDonald, 28 May 2020

The Overstory is a novel about trees and our relationship with them, revealing through narrative, argument and richly informative detail just how dependent humans are upon arboreal nature.

Brendan McGeever’s Antisemitism and the Russian Revolution: Distorting history in the service of identity politics

Part two

By Clara Weiss, 13 April 2020

This is the second part of a two-part review.

Brendan McGeever’s Antisemitism and the Russian Revolution: Distorting history in the service of identity politics

Part one

By Clara Weiss, 11 April 2020

This is the first part of a two-part review. The second part will be posted on Monday, April 13.

Further signs of life: The Best American Short Stories 2019

By James McDonald, 21 March 2020

Editor Anthony Doerr and series editor Heidi Pitlor have assembled in these twenty stories a book well worth reading and with more than one piece that contributes admirably to contemporary American literature.

Rottenomics: The Story of New Zealand’s Leaky Buildings Disaster

How profit-gouging and government deregulation created New Zealand’s home-building catastrophe

By John Braddock, 12 March 2020

Peter Dyer’s book explains how Labour and National Party governments created New Zealand’s “leaky homes” scandal.

An examination of the anti-immigrant campaign in early 20th century America

The Guarded Gate, by Daniel Okrent (Scribner, 2019)

By Fred Mazelis, 3 February 2020

A century after the imposition of racist immigration quotas in the US, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and racism are once again on the rise in the US and around the world.

Sigrid Nunez’s National Book Award-winning novel, The Friend: One form of contemporary misanthropy

By James McDonald, 18 January 2020

A novel about a middle-aged writing instructor whose recently deceased friend and mentor has bequeathed her his enormous Great Dane.

Vadim Rogovin’s Bolsheviks against Stalinism 1928–1933: Leon Trotsky and the Left Opposition

A magnificent account of Stalin’s opponents in the USSR

By Andrea Peters, 21 December 2019

Stalin’s rise was neither foreordained nor a natural outgrowth of the October Revolution. The Great Russian chauvinist and bureaucrat secured power in ferocious conflict with the proletariat, peasantry and cadre of the revolutionary socialist movement.

Skin Deep, Journey in the Divisive Science of Race, by Gavin Evans

By Philip Guelpa, 9 December 2019

The overwhelming weight of scientific research demonstrates that “race” does not exist as a valid biological category, but is a social construct.

A Warning: A manifesto of the pro-war “Resistance” in the American state

By Andre Damon, 4 December 2019

The book makes clear that the “Resistance” to Trump’s policies within the US government, which forms the basis of the Democrats’ impeachment drive, centers on claims that Trump is insufficiently aggressive in defending and expanding America’s imperial interests.

The Triumph of Injustice, by Emmanuel Saez and Gabriel Zucman: How tax cuts for the rich fuel inequality

By Andre Damon, 30 November 2019

Saez and Zucman argue that the systematic reduction of taxation of the rich and widespread tax evasion by corporations have been major factors in the growth of social inequality.

Right-wing networks in the German state exposed

By Peter Schwarz, 18 October 2019

Extreme Security brings together a wealth of material about violent neo-Nazi groups and right-wing extremist networks in the police, the legal system, the Bundeswehr and the secret service.

Edward Snowden: The man who exposed the electronic surveillance of everyone by US intelligence

By Kevin Reed, 12 October 2019

The memoir Permanent Record by the former intelligence contractor and whistleblower Edward Snowden is an important account of the life of the man behind the exposure of secret global electronic surveillance programs run by the NSA and CIA.

210 Snowden book review

8 October 2019

220 Snowden book review

7 October 2019

“1619” and the myth of white unity under slavery

Book review: Masterless Men: Poor Whites and Slavery in the Antebellum South by Keri Leigh Merritt

By Eric London, 9 September 2019

Merritt’s research refutes the New York Times’ Project 1619 claim that poor whites benefited from slavery.

210 Review of Masterless Men

7 September 2019

Obituary: African-American novelist Toni Morrison dead at 88

By Sandy English, 7 September 2019

Pulitzer Prize winner and Nobel Laureate Toni Morrison wrote several significant novels, but as a public figure turned to the selfish racialist politics of the upper middle class.

The work of Dr. Mona Hanna-Attisha in the Flint water crisis

By James Brookfield, 22 August 2019

A courageous defiance of political intimidation by politicians of both big business parties—Democrats as well as Republicans.

Book Review: Red State Revolt – Part II

The Democratic Socialists of America shows its hostility to socialism

By Nancy Hanover, 10 August 2019

Part II of the review of a new book by Eric Blanc of the DSA. See Part I

Book Review: Red State Revolt – Part I

The DSA’s dishonest and self-serving account of the US teachers’ strikes

By Nancy Hanover, 8 August 2019

A new book by Democratic Socialists of America member Eric Blanc reviewing the role of the DSA during the teacher strikes in West Virginia, Oklahoma and Arizona aims to boost the credibility of the unions and the Democratic Party.

Paul Hanebrink’s A Specter Haunting Europe: The Myth of Judeo-Bolshevism

Part 2: Stalinism, communism and anti-Semitism

By Clara Weiss, 9 July 2019

Hanebrink’s false equation of Stalinism with communism leads to a significant and misleading omission in his discussion of the reemergence of anti-Semitism in Eastern Europe after World War II and internationally today.

Part 1: Counter-revolution and anti-Semitism

Paul Hanebrink’s A Specter Haunting Europe: The Myth of Judeo-Bolshevism

By Clara Weiss, 8 July 2019

Hanebrink’s book focuses on examining the relationship between the fear of the “specter of communism” haunting Europe—to which Marx and Engels famously alluded in their Communist Manifesto of 1847—and of anti-Semitism.

The Impeachers: The Trial of Andrew Johnson and the Dream of a Just Nation, by Brenda Wineapple

The failed removal of Andrew Johnson and the emergence of the American working class

By Eric London, 26 June 2019

Brenda Wineapple’s The Impeachers: The Trial of Andrew Johnson and the Dream of a Just Nation is a factual and easy-to-read account of one of the most overlooked and poorly understood turning points in American history.

How Did Lubitsch Do It?: Joseph McBride’s engaging study of filmmaker Ernst Lubitsch

By David Walsh, 24 April 2019

Lubitsch, born in Berlin in 1892, first directed silent films in Germany and, after his move to Hollywood in 1922, directed silent and then sound films in the US. He is best known today for his American movies of the 1930s and 1940s.

An interview with film historian and biographer Joseph McBride, author of How Did Lubitsch Do It?

By David Walsh, 24 April 2019

David Walsh recently spoke to Joseph McBride, the author of a new study of filmmaker Ernst Lubitsch, famed for The Marriage Circle, Trouble in Paradise, Design for Living, The Shop Around the Corner, To Be or Not to Be and other films.

Assembly by Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri: A compendium of pseudo-left and anti-Marxist politics

By Emanuele Saccarelli, 22 April 2019

Assembly is saturated with reactionary postmodern conceptions, recycles worn-out anarchist recipes as innovative and progressive experiments and endorses virtually every political dead end of the recent and not-so-recent past.

The stagnation of American poetry: The Best American Poetry 2018

By James McDonald, 20 April 2019

For the most part, these are eminently safe poems, carefully dressed, peer reviewed and scrupulously attentive to contemporary cultural regulations of taste.

The State, Business and Education: How rapacious corporations are dismantling public education globally

By Erika Zimmer, 16 February 2019

Billionaires, global tech companies and national governments are imposing a profit-driven, user-pays system.

The Largesse of the Sea Maiden—Short stories by American author Denis Johnson

By Sandy English, 15 January 2019

Johnson (1949-2017) wrote convincingly and often movingly about the painful personal conundrums that people found themselves in, particularly as social conditions declined in the US in the 1970s and beyond.

Min Jin Lee’s Pachinko: A novel of 20th century Korea and Japan—“History has failed us, but no matter”

By Sandy English, 7 January 2019

Pachinko describes the struggles of four generations of Koreans in Japan. The New York Times named it one of the 10 best novels of 2017.

Rohini Hensman’s Indefensible: The ISO discovers its muse—the CIA—Part 3

By Alex Lantier, 17 December 2018

For Hensman, being “moral” means embracing the lies and provocations used to market US wars.

201 Frankfurt book fair / New book

18 October 2018

DSA covers for unions and Democrats in new book on walkout by West Virginia teachers

55 Strong, Inside the West Virginia Teachers’ Strike

By Nancy Hanover, 18 October 2018

A new book promoted by the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) is centered on the lie that the West Virginia teachers’ strike, which set off the series of strikes nationally last spring, was a “victory” in which the unions played a heroic role.

Daniel Ellsberg’s The Doomsday Machine: A prescient warning of the danger of nuclear war

By Kevin Martinez, 13 October 2018

The famous whistleblower of the “Pentagon Papers” provides a disturbing and timely memoir of his days preparing nuclear war policies for the Pentagon.

Dopesick by Beth Macy

Dealers, Doctors, and the Drug Company that Addicted America

By Gary Joad, 25 September 2018

Author Beth Macy paints a searing and heartbreaking portrait of the Appalachian victims of the current opioid epidemic in the United States.

Adam Tooze’s Crashed: The limitations of a Left-liberal historian

By Nick Beams, 22 September 2018

The historian Adam Tooze has published a detailed account of the origins and development of the global financial crisis of 2008 and its aftermath.

Olen Steinhauer’s The Middleman: An American uprising, darkly imagined

By James Brookfield, 5 September 2018

At the outset of The Middleman a group of approximately 400 Americans scattered throughout the country suddenly disappear from their day-to-day lives without telling friends and family.

Seymour Hersh’s Reporter: A life exposing government lies and crimes

By Andre Damon, 3 September 2018

Seymour Hersh, the investigative journalist who played a leading role in exposing the 1968 My Lai massacre in Vietnam and the Bush Administration’s torture of prisoners at Abu Ghraib, has published a long-awaited autobiography.

Growing poverty in cities and growing wealth at the top

A review of The Divided City by Alan Mallach

By Debra Watson, 31 August 2018

The research presented in The Divided City discredits the claim that promotion of upscale urban downtowns will bring improvement to the lives of workers in post-industrial urban America.

Physics, poetry and the search for quantum gravity: Carlo Rovelli’s Reality Is Not What It Seems

By Bryan Dyne, 29 June 2018

Rovelli’s works on modern physics combine a materialist approach to science with a popular approach of explanation that is informed by a knowledge of literature and philosophy.

Revisiting Hollywood’s Censor: Joseph I. Breen & The Production Code Administration (2007)

How the American establishment censored Hollywood during its “Golden Age”

By Charles Bogle, 17 May 2018

The bulk of Thomas Doherty’s work covers the period from 1934 to 1954, when his subject was the enforcer of the Production Code.

French ruling class promotes memoirs of neo-fascist Jean-Marie Le Pen

By Francis Dubois, 9 March 2018

As French imperialism prepares for new wars, a vast operation is underway to rehabilitate the Nazi-collaborationist Vichy regime and France’s colonial war in Algeria.

Ursula K. Le Guin: Prominent science fiction and fantasy writer (1929-2018)

By Sandy English, 8 March 2018

Ursula K. Le Guin, one of the most significant and popular English-language writers of speculative fiction, associated with feminism and utopianism, died January 28 at the age of 88.

Daniel Golden’s Spy Schools: How the CIA, FBI, and foreign intelligence secretly exploit America’s universities

By Clara Weiss, 28 February 2018

The new book by Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Daniel Golden is an important contribution toward understanding the military-intelligence-university complex in the United States.

The crisis of dental care under American capitalism

By Esther Galen, 11 January 2018

Teeth: The Story of Beauty, Inequality, and the Struggle for Oral Health in America, exposes the reality of poor dental health and lack of dental care endured by the working class and poor in the US.

The tragic and needless death of Deamonte Driver, a victim of dental disease

By Esther Galen, 11 January 2018

The 12-year-old boy died when bacteria from an untreated tooth abscess traveled to his brain.

Ron Chernow’s Grant: An able and compelling new biography

By Andre Damon, 15 December 2017

Chernow capably weaves together an account of the life of the Civil War general, president and memoirist.

230 Grant

12 December 2017

Mark Mazower’s What You Did Not Tell: The fate of a 20th century family from Russia

By Clara Weiss, 5 December 2017

Mark Mazower’s account of his family’s history, which was closely entangled with the development of the Russian revolutionary movement, is a very interesting and stimulating read.

The Republic For Which It Stands: The United States During Reconstruction and the Gilded Age, 1865-1896

Ida B. Wells, democratic rights, and lynch mob sexual assault accusations against African-Americans

By Eric London, 21 November 2017

The fight for the democratic rights of black men accused of rape is an essential issue highlighted by Richard White in his 941-page history of the post-Civil War period.

Hacks: The Inside Story of the Break-ins and Breakdowns That Put Donald Trump in the White House

An insider’s view of the crisis-ridden Democratic Party

By Andre Damon, 20 November 2017

Donna Brazile’s new book provides a glimpse of the divisions and factional struggles gripping the Democratic Party.

Thomas Mackaman’s New Immigrants and the Radicalization of American Labor, 1914-1924

Immigration and socialist strategy in America, past and present

By Eric London, 24 October 2017

Thomas Mackaman’s New Immigrants and the Radicalization of American Labor, 1914-1924 is an essential contribution not only to labor history, but also toward the development of a strategy of social revolution today.

The Death Gap: How Inequality Kills

The “disease” of social inequality sends thousands to a premature death

By Benjamin Mateus and George Marlowe, 25 September 2017

A new book by Chicago doctor David Ansell reveals the profound ways in which social inequality in the US creates “death gaps” and disparities in life expectancies.

Hillary Clinton’s What Happened: A conspiracy theory of the 2016 election

By Andre Damon, 20 September 2017

Hillary Clinton’s memoir, released September 13, represents the Democratic Party’s semi-official narrative of its electoral defeat in 2016.

Locking Up Our Own, by James Forman, Jr.

New book describes the role of black mayors and police officials in mass incarceration

By Fred Mazelis, 5 July 2017

Forman’s account provides further evidence that the massive growth of the US prison population is rooted primarily in class oppression, not in racial divisions.

Jonathan Allen and Amie Parnes’s Shattered: Inside Hillary Clinton’s Doomed Campaign

The Democratic Convention, anti-Russian hysteria, and Clinton’s concession

Part Two

By Eric London, 27 May 2017

A new book provides insight into how the Democratic Party attempted to manipulate popular opposition to war and inequality to advance the interests of the American financial aristocracy.

Jonathan Allen and Amie Parnes’s Shattered: Inside Hillary Clinton’s Doomed Campaign

An inside look at Bernie Sanders’s role in the Democratic Party primaries

Part One

By Eric London, 26 May 2017

A new book provides insight into how the Democratic Party attempted to manipulate popular opposition to war and inequality to advance the interests of the American financial aristocracy.

Haymarket Books’ #Resist: The International Socialist Organization props up the Democratic Party in Chicago

By Jessica Goldstein, 22 May 2017

Michelle Alexander and Naomi Klein discussed reforming the Democratic Party and their support for Bernie Sanders at a public discussion hosted by the ISO’s Keeanga-Yahmatta Taylor.

225 Review of "Viny Ridge Trap"

20 May 2017

Human rights propaganda in support of imperialist war

The Return of History, Conflict, Migration and Geopolitics in the 21st Century

By Roger Jordan, 18 May 2017

Based on human rights propaganda and a dishonest presentation of the virtues of international law, author Jennifer Welsh argues that the West has to act more aggressively to defend democratic values against terrorism and a resurgent Russia.

210 Haymarket Books event

16 May 2017

215 Haymarket Books forum with Klein and Alexander

15 May 2017

The Last Day of Oppression and the First Day of the Same: The Politics and Economics of the New Latin American Left

The pseudo-left’s appraisal of the “pink tide”: A recipe for further betrayals

By Eric London, 9 May 2017

Jeffrey R. Webber’s 2017 book is an agglomeration of the worst threads of Latin American petty-bourgeois radicalism. It is worth studying as a textbook of everything socialism is not.

Book details killing of Afghan civilians in New Zealand SAS raid

By Tom Peters, 5 April 2017

The book Hit and Run, by Nicky Hager and Jon Stephenson, indicates that the New Zealand government and Defence Force have covered up war crimes in Afghanistan.

ANZAC Heroes: Promoting war to children

By Sam Price and Tom Peters, 24 March 2017

A New Zealand government-funded children’s book glorifies Australian and New Zealand involvement in World War I and II.

Revisiting John Steinbeck’s A Russian Journal from 1948

By Clara Weiss, 21 March 2017

American novelist John Steinbeck, together with famed Hungarian-born war photographer Robert Capa, visited the Soviet Union in 1947 on the very eve of the Cold War.

Secret Affairs: Britain’s collusion with radical Islam

A revealing insight into political criminality and warmongering—Part 2

By Jean Shaoul, 6 March 2017

Britain’s collusion with Islamist fundamentalist forces prepared to use atrocities to achieve their objectives is in sharp contrast to the official line that Britain is conducting a “war on terror.”

Secret Affairs: Britain’s collusion with radical Islam

A revealing insight into political criminality and warmongering—Part 1

By Jean Shaoul, 4 March 2017

In Secret Affairs, author Mark Curtis investigates how Britain worked with radical Islamic groups in the post-World War II period in pursuit of its geopolitical interests.

Eliot Cohen’s blueprint for World War Three

By Eric London, 8 February 2017

The former State Department official’s book calling for preemptive nuclear war was warmly received by the Wall Street Journal and New York Times.

J.D. Vance’s Hillbilly Elegy: Right-wing propaganda in the guise of personal memoir

By Henry Seward, 25 January 2017

The 2016 best-selling memoir by a lawyer at a Silicon Valley investment firm is a rehash of reactionary attacks on the working class in Appalachia and the Midwest.

Hitler’s Professors: A documentation of war crimes by German academics against the Jewish people

By Clara Weiss, 16 January 2017

Max Weinreich’s classic study, Hitler’s Professors, first published in 1946, documents the role of leading German academics in the murder of Europe’s Jewish population.

A Pound of Flesh: The US legal system’s war against the poor

By Nancy Hanover, 7 January 2017

A Pound of Flesh: Monetary Sanctions as Punishment for the Poor, a new book by sociologist Alexes Harris, shows how legal financial obligations (LFOs) penalize the poorest among us.

Exile as an Intellectual Way of Life: The collaboration of Lion Feuchtwanger and Bertolt Brecht

By Sybille Fuchs, 29 December 2016

In his new book, journalist and non-fiction writer Andreas Rumler examines the intellectual relationship between two major German literary figures, Lion Feuchtwanger and Bertolt Brecht.

Novelist Lionel Shriver’s The Mandibles: A Family, 2029–2047 imagines an American meltdown

By James Brookfield, 6 December 2016

When we meet the cast of characters, in Shriver’s dystopian novel set in the not-so-distant future, the US is mired in economic crisis, driven largely by the growth of entitlement spending.

New study of American novelist

A conversation with Tony Williams, author of James Jones: The Limits of Eternity—Part 2

By David Walsh, 2 December 2016

Tony J. Williams has written a new study of the American novelist, James Jones (1921–77), best known for From Here to Eternity, Some Came Running, The Thin Red Line and the posthumously published Whistle.

New study of American novelist

A conversation with Tony Williams, author of James Jones: The Limits of Eternity—Part 1

By David Walsh, 1 December 2016

Tony J. Williams has written a new study of the American novelist, James Jones (1921–77), best known for From Here to Eternity, Some Came Running, The Thin Red Line and the posthumously published Whistle.

The political anatomy of pseudo-left war propaganda

Part two

By Eric London, 2 November 2016

A Road Unforeseen employs postmodernist political categories and identity politics in an explicit call for US war in the Middle East.

The political anatomy of pseudo-left war propaganda

Part one

By Eric London, 1 November 2016

A Road Unforeseen employs postmodernist political categories and identity politics in constructing an argument for war in the Middle East.

Making the case for war in Eastern Europe

Robert D. Kaplan’s In Europe’s Shadow

By Clara Weiss, 26 October 2016

The latest book by Robert D. Kaplan advocates transforming Romania into a military staging ground for US imperialism and preparing for all-out war against Russia.

Between the World and Me by Ta-Nehisi Coates: The dystopian vision of racial politics

By Tom Eley and David Walsh, 15 October 2016

With the publication last year of African-American journalist Ta-Nehisi Coates’s Between the World and Me, the political and media establishment quickly declared the author to be one of the country’s leading commentators on race.

230 Coates review

13 October 2016

Trotsky in New York, 1917: A Radical on the Eve of Revolution, by Kenneth D. Ackerman

By Linda Tenenbaum, 8 October 2016

Trotsky in New York, 1917 focuses on a remarkable period in the life of one of the greatest political figures in modern history.

Adam Hochschild’s Spain in Our Hearts: A deeply felt work on the Spanish Civil War marred by its perspective

By Emanuele Saccarelli, 3 October 2016

Hochschild is the well-known author of several books on wide-ranging and important topics, including the brutality of Belgian colonialism in the Congo (King Leopold’s Ghost).

240 Spanish civil war book review

30 September 2016

Matthew Desmond’s Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City

By Debra Watson, 13 September 2016

During the Great Depression of the 1930’s evictions in major American cities like Milwaukee were a fraction of what they are today. Meanwhile, in the US, post-2008 rental housing market rates continue to rise as working class incomes stagnate and even fall.

Book review

Matthew Desmond’s Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City

By Debra Watson, 9 September 2016

During the Great Depression of the 1930s evictions in major American cities like Milwaukee were a fraction of what they are today. Meanwhile, in the US, post-2008 rental housing market rates continue to rise as working class incomes stagnate and even fall.

An interview with Roy Scranton, author of War Porn

By Eric London, 1 September 2016

Novelist Roy Scranton spoke with the WSWS about his debut novel, War Porn, and the role of art in opposing war.

War Porn by Roy Scranton

The anti-war novel re-emerges in American literature

By Eric London, 22 August 2016

The debut novel by former US Army soldier Roy Scranton is a portrayal of a society devastated by a state of permanent war.

An interview with David Williams, author of Bitterly Divided: The South’s Inner Civil War

By Eric London, 16 August 2016

The World Socialist Web Site recently interviewed Professor David Williams of Valdosta State University about class conflict during the American Civil War and its relationship to social and political developments after the war.

Sleeping Giant: Deception and lies about the “new” working class

By Nancy Hanover, 11 August 2016

A new book by Demos editor Tamara Draut seeks to refurbish the Democratic Party and the trade unions by promoting identity politics.

230 Review of Sleeping Giant

9 August 2016

All Quiet on the Western Front: A generation haunted by war

By Isaac Finn, 5 August 2016

Erich Maria Remarque’s seminal work, All Quiet on the Western Front, deals with a generation thrown into World War I and the confusion and depression of those who survived.

Bitterly Divided: The South’s Inner Civil War

By Eric London, 26 July 2016

A 2008 book by Professor David Williams provides a mountain of evidence refuting the claim that the recent film Free State of Jones, directed by Gary Ross, presented “a quasi-historical” approach to the American Civil War and social conflict in the Confederacy.

Book Review

The Mare by Mary Gaitskill: Attention to social inequality—in her own way

By Sandy English, 12 July 2016

In her new novel, Gaitskill focuses on a poor Dominican teenager from New York City, the suburban family she lives with during the summer and her experiences relating to a particularly abused horse.