Democrats seek to suppress Sanders victory in Iowa

By Patrick Martin, 7 February 2020

The effort to conceal or suppress reports of Senator Bernie Sanders’ victory in the Iowa caucuses reached a new stage Thursday with DNC Chairman Tom Perez calling on the Iowa Democratic Party to recanvass the state.

Far-right AfD plays role of kingmaker in German state election

By Christoph Vandreier, 7 February 2020

For the first time since the end of the Third Reich, a state premier was elected on Wednesday with the votes of a far-right, fascist party, the Alternative for Germany (AfD).

Immigration and Customs Enforcement agent shoots unarmed man in the face in New York City

By Shuvu Batta, 7 February 2020

Eric Diaz-Cruz was shot as he sought to stop his mother’s boyfriend from being detained by ICE early Thursday morning.

Human Rights Watch report finds 138 Salvadorans killed after being deported from the US

By Adam Mclean, 7 February 2020

The report, based on interviews with over 150 people over a one-and-a-half-year period, additionally identified 70 other deportees who were beaten, sexually assaulted, extorted or tortured.

Democratic governor gives right-wing response to Trump State of the Union address

By Joseph Lorenz, 7 February 2020

The Democratic Party rebuttal included hypocritical invocations of democracy, demagogic appeals to struggling workers and falsification of the party’s reactionary record.

Trump delivers right-wing tirade against socialism in State of the Union address

Official response to coronavirus heightens popular anger at Chinese government

By James Cogan, 7 February 2020

It is apparent that Chinese officials at all levels were aware by late December that a new strain of coronavirus had emerged.

As number of cases soars, researchers announce potential coronavirus vaccine

New Zealand’s coronavirus travel ban stokes tensions with China

Warnings issued over share market surge

By Nick Beams, 7 February 2020

In a speech this week, the governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia Philip Lowe pointed to the growing risks posed by the cheap money policies of the world’s central banks.

UK: Tory health secretary signals ditching Accident and Emergency targets as crisis in NHS worsens

By Ajanta Silva, 7 February 2020

Research by the Patient Association found that 5,500 NHS patients died over the past three years due to spending so long on a trolley in overcrowded hospital A&E units.

GM workers denounce forced overtime imposed with UAW collusion

By George Kirby and Tim Rivers, 7 February 2020

Workers from General Motors Customer Care & Aftersales facilities and other factories in Michigan are angered by continuous forced overtime imposed in the aftermath of the 2019 UAW sellout contract.

BorgWarner buys Delphi as mergers in global auto industry slash thousands of jobs

By Tim Rivers, 7 February 2020

The move by BorgWarner is the latest step in the vast restructuring of the industry, as carmakers and supplies scramble to dominate the emerging electrical and autonomous vehicle markets.

More killed as poll shows half of Chile has joined protests

By Andrea Lobo, 7 February 2020

The demonstrations last week, as well as the ongoing walkouts at high schools signal a still latent social explosion.

Lavrov tours Latin America as Pentagon brands Russia, China as “malign actors”

New Australian Greens leader makes a “left” pitch to young people

By Mike Head, 7 February 2020

By installing Bandt as leader, the Greens MPs demonstrated their concern over the mounting political disaffection.

Kahatagaha miners in Sri Lanka must fight for socialist policies

By Naveen Dewage, 7 February 2020

The three-day walkout by graphite miners in defiance of their unions indicates the increasing radicalisation of the working class and the rapid break up of illusions in the new government.

6 February 2020

Over 1.5 million homeless students in the US

By Trévon Austin, 6 February 2020

“We’re facing the worst crisis we’ve ever seen”
Trump threatens to block aid as Puerto Rico is hit by new earthquake

By Kayla Costa and Julio Patron, 6 February 2020

Montana state representative calls for socialists to be shot

By Bryan Dyne, 6 February 2020

White supremacist Coast Guard officer sentenced to thirteen years in federal prison after plotting massacre of Democrats and “leftists in general”

Germany’s IG Metall union offers to collaborate in restructuring the steel and electronics industries

By Ulrich Rippert, 6 February 2020

Democrats cover up extent of hexavalent chromium poisoning at public meeting in Detroit suburb

By Kevin Reed, 6 February 2020

Unifor praises Saskatchewan premier as he demands police action against locked out refinery workers

By Carl Bronski, 6 February 2020

Farmers protest Socialist Party-Podemos government in Madrid

By Alejandro López, 6 February 2020

Social inequality main issue in the Irish general election

By Dermot Byrne, 6 February 2020

Emergency legislation for terror law offenders in UK sets anti-democratic precedent

By Thomas Scripps, 6 February 2020

Boris Johnson’s government uses London terror attack to call for indefinite detention

Labor Party props up Australian government in political crisis

By Mike Head, 6 February 2020

Australian political establishment once again in turmoil

Sri Lanka: The ruling elite’s hollow national independence celebrations

By K. Ratnayake, 6 February 2020

India: One million public sector bank workers strike for higher pay and against privatisation

By Arun Kumar, 6 February 2020

New in Portuguese

Reino Unido deixa a União Europeia: Contra o nacionalismo, pelos Estados Unidos Socialistas da Europa!

Partido Socialista pela Igualdade (Reino Unido), 7 Fevereiro 2020

Os trabalhadores e a juventude no Reino Unido precisam se virar, não ao nacionalismo ou à União Europeia, mas ao crescimento global da luta da classe trabalhadora.

New in Turkish

IYSSE Berlin Humboldt Üniversitesi’nde yeniden öğrenci meclisine seçildi

Muhabirlerimizden, 7 Şubat 2020

Toplumsal Eşitlik İçin Uluslararası Gençlik ve Öğrenciler’in (IYSSE) Berlin Humboldt Üniversitesi’ndeki grubu, yapılan seçimde öğrenci meclisine (StuPa) yeniden seçildi.

Aşırı sağcı Profesör Jörg Baberowski sosyalist öğrenciye fiziksel olarak saldırdı

Muhabirlerimizden, 7 Şubat 2020

Baberowski artık sadece bir aşırı sağcı ideolog ve Nazi savunucusu olarak değil, şiddet eylemleri gerçekleştirmeye hazır aşırı sağcı bir eylemci olarak hareket ediyor.

New in Norwegian

Offentlig møte i London av Don’t Extradite Assange: De politiske anliggender

Laura Tiernan og Chris Marsden, 7. februar 2020

Formålet med gruppa Don't Extradite Assange er å rehabilitere Labour Party og fagforeningene, og spesielt deres «venstre»-representanter, og å få styrt bevegelsen til Assanges forsvar inn under deres kontroll.

Bønder protesterer mot PSOE-Podemos-regjeringen i Madrid

Alejandro López, 7. februar 2020

Den reaksjonære PSOE-Podemos-regjeringen frykter en sosial eksplosjon i Spania, der tusenvis av bønder ikler seg gule vester, og gjenspeiler de sosiale masseprotestene i Frankrike.

New in French

La réunion «Pas d'extradition d’Assange» à Londres: les enjeux politiques

Laura Tiernan et Chris Marsden, 7 février 2020

L’objectif du groupe «Pas d’extradition d’Assange» (Don’t Extradite Assange) est de redorer le blason du Parti travailliste et des syndicats, surtout ses représentants de «gauche», et de ramener le mouvement qui lutte pour la défense d’Assange sous leur direction.

Trump sort renforcé de la débâcle du procès en destitution des démocrates

Joseph Kishore — Candidat du Parti de l’égalité socialiste pour la présidence des États-Unis, 7 février 2020

Depuis le début de la présidence de Trump, les démocrates ont travaillé pour canaliser l’opposition populaire de masse à Trump derrière leur propre programme militariste de droite.

Un élu républicain du Montana demande que les socialistes soient fusillés

Bryan Dyne, 7 février 2020

La diatribe de Rodney Garcia reflète les appels fascistes du président Trump.

Les agriculteurs protestent contre le gouvernement du Parti socialiste-Podemos à Madrid

Alejandro López, 7 février 2020

Alors que des milliers d'agriculteurs revêtent des gilets jaunes, faisant écho aux protestations sociales de masse en France, le gouvernement réactionnaire du Parti socialiste-Podemos craint une explosion sociale en Espagne.

Plus de la moitié des «millenials» craignent une attaque nucléaire au cours de la prochaine décennie

Genevieve Leigh, 7 février 2020

Une récente étude du Comité international de la Croix-Rouge, qui a étudié 16.000 personnes de la génération du millénaire dans 16 pays différents, a révélé une hostilité écrasante à la guerre et au militarisme chez les jeunes.

Les inégalités sociales au cœur des élections législatives irlandaises

Dermot Byrne, 7 février 2020

Les élections générales en Irlande se déroulent dans des conditions d’immense instabilité et incertitude, alors que les travailleurs cherchent une alternative politique.

New in Spanish

La debacle de las primarias en Iowa

Patrick Martin, 7 febrero 2020

Toda la mugre y corrupción de la política capitalista está siendo vertida en las elecciones de 2020 para contrarrestar el giro a la izquierda de los jóvenes y trabajadores.

Lavrov recorre América Latina mientras el Pentágono califica a Rusia y China como "actores malignos"

Bill Van Auken, 7 febrero 2020

La visita a tres países latinoamericanos de Lavrov viene tras una gira por antiguas repúblicas soviéticas por parte del secretario de Estado estadounidense Pompeo dedicada a denunciar a Rusia y a China.

La desigualdad social como tema principal en las elecciones generales de Irlanda

Dermot Byrne, 7 febrero 2020

La elección general irlandesa se produce en condiciones de inmensa inestabilidad e incertidumbre en que los trabajadores buscan una alternativa política.

El relator de la ONU, Nils Melzer, expone los intentos del gobierno británico de obstruir defensa de Assange

Oscar Grenfell, 7 febrero 2020

Que el gobierno británico esté al mismo tiempo obstruyendo las indagaciones de Melzer y aparentemente llevando a cabo una campaña tras bastidores contra él, pone de relieve la ilegalidad flagrante de toda la vendetta dirigida por EEUU contra Assange.

Más de 1.5 millones de estudiantes sin hogar en los Estados Unidos

Trévon Austin, 7 febrero 2020

El día en que el presidente de los Estados Unidos, Donald Trump, proclamó un "auge de los trabajadores" en su discurso sobre el estado de la Unión, el gobierno federal informó que el número de estudiantes que experimentaron la falta de vivienda alcanzó un récord.

Trump sale fortalecido de la debacle del juicio político demócrata

Joseph Kishore, 7 febrero 2020

Desde el principio de la Presidencia de Trump, los demócratas se han dedicado a encarrilar la masiva oposición popular a Trump detrás de su propia agenda derechista y militarista.

New in German

Schäubles Lehre aus Auschwitz: Neue Kriege und Verbrechen

Johannes Stern, 7. Februar 2020

75 Jahre nach der Befreiung von Auschwitz lautet die Maxime der deutschen Bourgeoisie nicht mehr „Nie wieder!“, sondern „Auf zu neuen Kriegen und Verbrechen!“.

Thüringen: Von AfD gewählter Ministerpräsident kündigt Rücktritt an

Peter Schwarz, 7. Februar 2020

24 Stunden nachdem er mit den Stimmen von AfD, CDU und FDP zum thüringischen Ministerpräsidenten gewählt wurde, hat der FDP-Politiker Thomas Kemmerich seinen Rücktritt angekündigt.

Impeachment-Debakel der Demokraten stärkt Trump

Joseph Kishore, 7. Februar 2020

Seit Beginn der Trump-Präsidentschaft arbeiten die Demokraten daran, den Massenwiderstand der Bevölkerung gegen Trump hinter ihrer eigenen rechten, militaristischen Agenda zu kanalisieren.

UN-Berichterstatter Nils Melzer entlarvt Intrigen der britischen Regierung

Oscar Grenfell, 7. Februar 2020

In der Verteidigung Julian Assanges spielt Melzer eine entscheidende Rolle. Dass die britische Regierung ihn offiziell ignoriert und hinter den Kulissen gegen ihn intrigiert, entlarvt die ganze Rechtlosigkeit des Rachefeldzugs, den die USA angestiftet haben.

Zum 200. Geburtstag von Theodor Fontane
Teil 2: Reisebücher, Kriegsbücher und Theaterkritiken

Sybille Fuchs, 7. Februar 2020

Eine Besprechung des Buches „Fontane – Ein Jahrhundert in Bewegung“ von Iwan-Michelangelo D´Aprile.

New in Italian

I partiti di governo sconfiggono la Lega alle elezioni in Emilia-Romagna

Peter Schwarz, 4 febbraio 2020

Mentre il candidato di estrema destra della Lega è stato chiaramente sconfitto nelle elezioni emiliano-romagnole dal candidato democratico, l'ascesa degli estremisti di destra non è stata affatto fermata.

New in Russian

Кремль назначает новый кабинет министров

Андреа Питерс, 29 января 2020 г.

Смена лиц в российском правительстве в основном касается министерских постов, связанных с социальной сферой и внутренней политикой.

Other Languages


Trump gloats over impeachment, but popular opposition mounts to his administration

7 February 2020

While Trump has emerged victorious over his factional enemies within the state, he heads a crisis-ridden government despised by broad sections of workers and young people.

Earlier Perspectives »

International Youth and Students for Social Equality

Right-wing extremist Professor Jörg Baberowski physically assaults socialist student

By our reporters, 5 February 2020

Featured Commentary

Accuser Jessica Mann’s testimony in the Weinstein trial: A Journey to the End of the Night

By David Walsh, 7 February 2020

In the course of three days of lurid testimony describing the warped, emotionally pathological and mutually destructive relationship between Weinstein and his accuser Jessica Mann, the trial degenerated into a degrading and horrifying spectacle.

Jacobin’s Bhaskar Sunkara on the Iowa caucuses: Don’t lose faith in the Democrats

By Andre Damon, 7 February 2020

Writing in the Guardian, Sunkara claims that “we should have confidence” in the “integrity” of the vote in Iowa, arguing that the DNC will not “steal the election from Bernie Sanders.”

The Iowa caucuses debacle

By Patrick Martin, 5 February 2020

All the filth and corruption of capitalist politics is being poured into the 2020 elections to counter the shift to the left among youth and working people.

Trump emerges strengthened after Democrats’ impeachment debacle

Joseph Kishore—Socialist Equality Party candidate for US president, 6 February 2020

From the beginning of the Trump presidency, the Democrats have worked to channel mass popular opposition to Trump behind their own right-wing, militarist agenda.

Free Assange and Manning

Interview with international model Andreja Pejic: “I think standing behind Assange and Manning is where we should all be”

By Sue Phillips and Will Marshall, 7 February 2020

The WSWS spoke with Andreja Pejic about the campaign to free Julian Assange and Chelsea Manning and broader political issues.

UN rapporteur Nils Melzer exposes British government attempts to obstruct his defence of Assange

By Oscar Grenfell, 5 February 2020

The prosecution of Julian Assange, the destruction of legality and the rise of the national security state

Don’t Extradite Assange meeting in London: The political issues

By Laura Tiernan and Chris Marsden, 6 February 2020

Rallies in Australia and NZ to demand freedom for Assange and Manning. No to US extradition!

the Socialist Equality Party Australia and SEG (NZ), 28 January 2020

Socialist Equality Party Public Meeting in London:
Free Julian Assange and Chelsea Manning! No US extradition!

28 January 2020

The New York Times' 1619 Project

A reply to the American Historical Review’s defense of the 1619 Project

By David North and Tom Mackaman, 31 January 2020

The disrespect expressed by editor Alex Lichtenstein toward leading historians reveals the extent to which racialist mythology, which has provided the “theoretical” foundation of middle-class identity politics, has been accepted, and even embraced, by a substantial section of the academic community as a legitimate basis for the teaching of American history.

My Response to Alex Lichtenstein Regarding the 1619 Project

By Victoria Bynum, 31 January 2020

The 1619 Project and the falsification of history: An analysis of the New York Times’ reply to five historians

Arts Review

Staff, students and freedom of expression at Nashville art school threatened in takeover by religious university

By Warren Duzak, 6 February 2020

Watkins College of Art, long known for its artistic freedom, is being absorbed by Belmont University, where art and the teaching of art are censored.

American pianist Peter Serkin is dead at 72

By Fred Mazelis, 5 February 2020

The son of Rudolf Serkin, he was a musician of intelligence, passion and integrity, a solo recitalist and chamber musician, who also performed with orchestras worldwide.

Advocate (2019): “An angry, optimistic woman” in pursuit of justice for the Palestinians

By Jean Shaoul, 4 February 2020

Steven Soderbergh’s High Flying Bird: Sports and racial politics

More on the campaign to defend Julian Assange »

Election 2020

SEP presidential candidate Joseph Kishore addresses IYSSE election campaign meeting at Berlin’s Humboldt University

By our reporters, 1 February 2020

Socialist Equality Party to run Joseph Kishore for president, Norissa Santa Cruz for vice president in 2020 US elections

The alternative confronting the working class is clear: capitalist barbarism or international socialism. The Socialist Equality Party, in political solidarity with the International Committee of the Fourth International, will use this campaign to advance the struggle of the working class against capitalism. Sign up today to get involved!

“The time is now to fight for genuine socialism and an end to capitalist exploitation”
SEP presidential candidate Joseph Kishore opens 2020 campaign with address to students and supporters in Michigan

By our reporters, 29 January 2020

Workers Struggles

Finnish paper and forestry workers continue stoppage; one-day public sector strike across Portugal; wildcat strike at South Africa Toyota in Durban
Workers Struggles: Europe, Middle East & Africa

7 February 2020

Some 15,000 Finnish forestry and paper workers have extended their strike while public sector workers struck across Portugal and South Africa Toyota workers struck over the withholding of bonuses.

Washington DC transit authority proposes cuts in services in wake of 84-day bus drivers’ strike

By Nick Barrickman, 4 February 2020


Amidst growth of class struggle, union membership in US falls to historic lows

By Jerry White, 4 February 2020

The right-wing record of Jacinda Ardern’s government in New Zealand

By the Socialist Equality Group (New Zealand), 3 February 2020

Britain leaves the European Union: Against nationalism, For the United Socialist States of Europe!

Statement by the Socialist Equality Party (UK), 31 January 2020

Swiss newspaper raises important questions about the Harvey Weinstein trial
Why will no one in the American media do the same?

By David Walsh, 30 January 2020

The decade of socialist revolution begins

By David North and Joseph Kishore, 3 January 2020

International Youth and Students for Social Equality

Germany: IYSSE again represented in the Student Parliament at Berlin’s Humboldt University

By our reporters, 5 February 2020

Germany: Humboldt University students speak on the falsification of history and lessons from Auschwitz

Take up the fight for international socialism! Join the IYSSE!

the International Youth and Students for Social Equality (Australia), 5 February 2020

Students and young people speak out against war

4 February 2020

More than half of the world’s millennials fear a nuclear attack will happen in the next decade

By Genevieve Leigh, 4 February 2020

Book Review

An examination of the anti-immigrant campaign in early 20th century America
The Guarded Gate, by Daniel Okrent (Scribner, 2019)

By Fred Mazelis, 3 February 2020

A century after the imposition of racist immigration quotas in the US, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and racism are once again on the rise in the US and around the world.

25 years ago: Russian miners strike

On February 8, 1995, more than 600,000 coal miners staged a one-day strike across Russia, shutting down mines from Sakhalin in the east to the Don River basin.

More »

50 years ago: Yugoslavia makes trade agreement with Common Market countries

On February 6, 1970, the government of Yugoslavia signed a three-year trade agreement with the European Economic Community, also referred to as the Common Market.

More »

75 years ago: At Yalta Conference, Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin discuss post-war carve-up

On February 4, 1945 Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin gathered in the Crimean resort city of Yalta to begin negotiations on the carve-up of the world in the aftermath of the Second World War.

More »

100 years ago: New Zealand sends troops to Fiji to quell strike

On February 5, 1920, the Reform Party government of William Massey in New Zealand sent a contingent of 55 soldiers to Fiji to help the British colonial government suppress a strike of public employees.

More »


Latest UN plan to address catastrophic decline in biodiversity—more empty platitudes

By Philip Guelpa, 1 February 2020

Earth faces the sixth mass extinction of life on the planet, and all the capitalist system can provide is another toothless document.


An interview with Auschwitz survivor Esther Bejarano

the editorial board, 27 January 2020

Seventy-five years since the liberation of Auschwitz

Seventy-five years after World War II: The ideological preparations for fascism and war
IYSSE holds second meeting in campaign for student parliament elections at Berlin’s Humboldt University

By our reporters, 28 January 2020

No to war against Iran! For an international movement against capitalism and war!
IYSSE holds first meeting in campaign for student parliament elections at Berlin’s Humboldt University

The New York Times' 1619 Project

Martin Luther King Jr. and the fight for social equality

By Tom Mackaman and Niles Niemuth, 23 January 2020

The New York Times’ “1619 Project”
Nikole Hannah-Jones, Shell Oil and mass killings in Africa

By Trévon Austin and Bill Van Auken, 18 December 2019

The New York Times’s 1619 Project: A racialist falsification of American and world history

By Niles Niemuth, Tom Mackaman and David North, 6 September 2019

“The saddest part of this is that the response of the Times is simply to defend their project”
An interview with historian Clayborne Carson on the New York Times’ 1619 Project

1619 Project director speaks at New York University
Nikole Hannah-Jones, race theory and the Holocaust

By Eric London and David North, 26 November 2019

More on the New York Times’ 1619 Project »

Mehring Books

New pamphlet from Mehring Books on the 1619 Project

24 January 2020

The response of David North and Eric London to the New York Times’ rebuff of five eminent historians’ objections to the 1619 Project is now available as an illustrated pamphlet.

Vadim Rogovin’s Bolsheviks against Stalinism 1928–1933: Leon Trotsky and the Left Opposition
A magnificent account of Stalin’s opponents in the USSR

By Andrea Peters, 21 December 2019

Stalin’s rise was neither foreordained nor a natural outgrowth of the October Revolution. The Great Russian chauvinist and bureaucrat secured power in ferocious conflict with the proletariat, peasantry and cadre of the revolutionary socialist movement.

Socialist Equality Party

UK Public Meetings:
The election of Boris Johnson and the failure of Corbynism

28 December 2019

Socialist Equality Party used UK general election to put forward a socialist perspective

Autoworkers Struggles

GM workers in Mexico thank Australian workers for support

By the WSWS Autoworker Newsletter, 10 January 2020

GM workers in Mexico thank US workers for donating to their defense fund

More on autoworkers struggles »

Socialist Equality Party

Video: 70 years after the Chinese Revolution—How the struggle for socialism was betrayed

31 October 2019

Introduction to the 1955 SWP resolution “The Third Chinese Revolution and its Aftermath”

From the archives
SWP resolution: The Third Chinese Revolution and its Aftermath

Introduction to the 1951 report to the Fourth International by Chinese Trotskyist Peng Shuzhi

From the archives
The Causes of the Victory of the Chinese Communist Party over Chiang Kai-Shek, and the CCP’s Perspectives

Mehring Books

Mehring Yayıncılık publishes new ICFI books for İstanbul Book Fair

By Ulas Atesci, 29 October 2019

Preface to the Turkish edition of The Russian Revolution and the Unfinished Twentieth Century

By David North, 2 September 2019

Preview the new publication from Mehring Books
Author’s introduction to Bolsheviks Against Stalinism 1928-1933: Leon Trotsky and the Left Opposition

By Vadim Rogovin, 30 August 2019

Now available from Mehring Books
Bolsheviks Against Stalinism 1928-1933: Leon Trotsky and the Left Opposition by Vadim Z. Rogovin

History of the ICFI

Drawing the lessons of the ICFI split—International Strategy and National Tactics: The change in the ICFI’s approach to national liberation movements

By Deepal Jayasekera, 30 September 2019

This lecture was delivered to the Socialist Equality Party (US) Summer School on July 25, 2019 by Deepal Jayasekera, Assistant Secretary of the Socialist Equality Party in Sri Lanka

Introduction to the Turkish language edition of In Defense of Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky’s four fateful years in Prinkipo: 1929-1933

By David North, 23 September 2019

The ICFI and the Crisis of Stalinism

The World Capitalist Crisis and the Tasks of the Fourth International: An analysis of the ICFI Perspectives resolution of 1988

The International Committee’s response to the “End of History”: The March 1992 Plenum of the ICFI

The Dissolution of the USSR and the Unipolar Moment of US Imperialism

China: Thirty years since the Tiananmen Square massacre

The Political Origins and Consequences of the 1982–86 Split in the International Committee of the Fourth International

The 2020 US Elections

Joe Biden: A familiar face, a deeply reactionary record

By Patrick Martin, 23 September 2019

Amy Klobuchar: The favorite Democrat of Senate Republicans

By George Gallanis, 19 August 2019