Education

Irish teachers vote to strike as infection rates spiral

By Steve James and Dermot Quinn, 9 November 2020

Schools in the Republic of Ireland reopened last week after a two-week break, despite secondary teachers voting for strike action against dangerous working conditions if COVID-19 related safety measures were not put in place by October 30.

The deliberate sabotage of online learning in the US

Part 1

By Chase Lawrence, 9 November 2020

The underfunded and chaotic implementation of online learning is being used to force students back into unsafe classrooms.

SUNY Cortland suspends in-person classes for rest of semester after seeing continued rise of COVID-19 cases

By Alex Findijs, 7 November 2020

The university in central New York has recorded 604 COVID-19 cases since the semester began. The decision to suspend in-person classes is an admission that it was never safe to return students to campus.

999 Remote learning debacle: Part 1

7 November 2020

“We have the power to save ourselves and our students”

Pennsylvania teacher speaks on the US elections and the crisis in public education

By Samuel Davidson, 7 November 2020

The WSWS spoke with a teacher and mother of two who works in Reading, Pennsylvania, about the political situation and her thoughts on the reopening of schools in the Democrat-led state.

Manchester University students tear down 7-foot fence put up around their accommodation blocks

By Henry Lee, 7 November 2020

The protest on Thursday evening was a response to the fencing-in of students, seen as the last straw by residents fed up with the contemptuous and authoritarian treatment they have faced from university authorities.

In face of rising coronavirus infections, teachers, students, and parents express support for European-wide school strike

By Gregor Link, 7 November 2020

From a scientific standpoint, it has long been shown that schools and kindergartens are breeding grounds for the coronavirus.

Educators seeking their legal rights are sandbagged, compelled to return to unsafe buildings

By Nancy Hanover, 7 November 2020

As states and districts controlled by both Democrats and Republicans demand schools reopen for face-to-face instruction, tens of thousands of education workers have attempted to secure workplace accommodations or all-remote work, citing protections ostensibly guaranteed by the law.

Michigan K-12 schools see another huge increase in COVID-19 outbreaks

By Zac Corrigan, 6 November 2020

As the disease spreads rapidly through schools in every part of the state, Democrats plow ahead with the deadly return to in-person learning.

French teachers’ strikes mount against school openings as pandemic surges

By Will Morrow, 6 November 2020

Teachers across France are continuing to organise strike action at local school meetings as they face catastrophic conditions.

“They are messing with a sleeping giant”

Alabama teacher speaks out against unsafe conditions and schools reopening

By Emma Arceneaux, 6 November 2020

The WSWS spoke to a middle school teacher who participated in last month’s protest by 165 Montgomery, Alabama, teachers against unsafe working conditions.

UK teachers, students and parents across England support strike action to close schools, welcome French teacher strikes

By Tania Kent, 6 November 2020

The UK’s lockdown vote took place on the deadliest day for the virus in the country since May, with 492 COVID-19 deaths reported. This was the highest fatality rate per capita of any country in the world that day.

College student, 20, found dead in dorm room after testing positive for COVID-19

By Usman Khan, 5 November 2020

The young student died in her dorm room while in quarantine after testing positive for COVID-19 and being sent home from the hospital.

“Zero was never a realistic expectation”

Official academics downplay the risks of school reopenings as pandemic rages across the US

By Benjamin Mateus, 5 November 2020

The official bourgeois academics and health experts, as evidenced by the likes of Emily Oster, Ashish Jha and Scott Atlas, place the profit interests of the ruling class above the safety and lives of the working class.

German teachers, students and parents oppose keeping schools open as pandemic spreads

By Gregor Link, 5 November 2020

As new COVID-19 cases explode due to the German government’s deliberate policy of mass infection, strong opposition to keeping schools open is growing.

Highest one-week increase in US child cases since onset of COVID-19 pandemic

By Genevieve Leigh, 4 November 2020

More than 61,000 children in the US were diagnosed with COVID-19 last week, more than in any other week during the pandemic.

Bipartisan assault on US public education intensifies amid COVID-19 pandemic

By Alberto Escalera, 4 November 2020

The further evisceration of state and local budgets for education will have a devastating impact on education workers and public school students alike.

Jennifer Jones calls for united action in parents strike: “Are things serious enough for a mass walk out? How serious does it need to get?”

By our reporter, 4 November 2020

The World Socialist Web Site spoke with Boycott Return to Unsafe Schools leader Jennifer Jones about the parents strike they have called for this Thursday.

Teachers at Toronto school walk off the job after COVID-19 outbreak

By Roger Jordan, 4 November 2020

Acting at the behest of Ontario’s Conservative government, school authorities have rejected out of hand teachers’ demand for the school’s closure or additional safety measures.

French police assault students demanding school shutdowns to stop coronavirus spread

By Will Morrow, 4 November 2020

Yesterday, French riot police tear gassed and broke up protests by high school students calling for the closure of their schools to halt the spread of the pandemic.

Turkish government rejects lockdown as pandemic spirals out of control

By Barış Demir, 4 November 2020

President Erdoğan’s government insists on continuing its back-to-work, back-to-school policy as thousands fall ill and deaths mount.

Parents’ strike called Thursday in UK against threat from COVID-19

By Laura Tiernan, 4 November 2020

The parents’ strike poses the need for a coordinated network of rank-and-file committees linking parents with teachers, students and broader sections of the working class to defeat the Johnson government’s “herd immunity” agenda.

Europe’s COVID-19 pandemic spirals out of control

By Alex Lantier, 3 November 2020

European governments’ pretensions to have handled the pandemic more intelligently than the Trump administration have been exposed as a cynical and deadly fraud.

Thirteen-year-old eighth grader in Missouri dies of COVID-19

By Genevieve Leigh, 3 November 2020

The sudden and tragic death of such a young child has sent shockwaves through the community and across the US.

The New School lays off 122 staff, sparking community protest

By Elliott Murtagh, 3 November 2020

The New York City university’s recent layoffs have created outrage and opposition among students, faculty, and staff looking to push back.

National Education Union belatedly begs Johnson government to close UK schools during lockdown

By Robert Stevens, 3 November 2020

The NEU itself envisages only a temporary closure of schools, calling for “rotas to be introduced at the end of the lockdown period.”

Washington D.C. Public Schools halt reopening plans as teachers mount sickout strike

By Nick Barrickman, 3 November 2020

The halt to reopening comes after 93 percent of Washington D.C. Public School teachers declared a vote of “no confidence” in the Democratic Party-controlled city’s school reopening plan.

Teachers strike across France against first day of deadly school reopenings

By Will Morrow, 3 November 2020

Government policy means that schools will act as vectors for the transmission of the virus, countless children will become infected, and will infect family and friends.

Brookline, Massachusetts educators begin sickout strike as state officials push to keep schools open

By Andrew Timon and Kate Randall, 3 November 2020

The governor and Massachusetts school officials have placed a premium on opening schools despite the dangerous spike in coronavirus infections.

UK Educators Rank-and-File Safety Committee meets as Johnson declares schools and campuses will remain open

By Margot Miller, 3 November 2020

Speaking at the meeting, Gregor Link explained, “The urgent political fight for safe education and life is bound up with the struggle for socialism.”

The role of the World Socialist Web Site in educating a new generation of revolutionaries

By Genevieve Leigh, 2 November 2020

Young people looking for answers to all of the pressing questions of today are coming to find that there is no greater resource than the WSWS.

Omaha, Nebraska school worker dies from COVID-19 as cases spike and teacher anger grows

By James Martin, 2 November 2020

School custodian Greg Petersen became ill as schools reopen and teacher opposition grows to the spread of the deadly virus.

“The WSWS has not only commented on the struggles of the working class it has been an active participant in them”

By Jerry White, 2 November 2020

In the vast archive of the WSWS, the working class will find the most critical lessons from the history of the global class struggle and an international socialist perspective needed to conduct its fight against world capitalism today.

For a European-wide school strike against the pandemic

By International Youth and Students for Social Equality, 31 October 2020

If non-essential businesses, schools, and day-care centres are not immediately closed, the overloading of health care systems and the premature death of millions of people is inevitable.

“You are going to have students, employees and the community getting sick and possibly dying.”

Philadelphia educators speak out against the deadly reopening of schools

By Samuel Davidson, 30 October 2020

Educators in the Philadelphia region are speaking out against plans to resume in-person teaching early next month.

Teaching unions deepen collaboration with Johnson government’s “herd immunity” school policy

By Tania Kent and Tom Pearce, 30 October 2020

The insincere posturing of the education unions, including their polite letter to Education Secretary Gavin Williamson and their call for part-time rotas in areas under Tier 2 and Tier 3 lockdowns, are aimed at stemming widespread anger among teachers to their rotten capitulations to the Johnson government.

San Diego educators and students demand access to COVID-19 outbreak data

San Diego Educators Rank-and-File Safety Committee, 30 October 2020

The public must be granted access to proper data and information so that individuals can make informed decisions on their health, and to ensure the proper protection of themselves and their families.

Tennessee educator speaks out against unsafe conditions and lack of resources

By Our reporters, 29 October 2020

While COVID-19 continues to spread throughout Tennessee, educators are left with little resources and a deliberate lack of information about outbreaks at their schools.

Australian university union runs limited “wage theft” campaign

By Gabriela Zabala, 29 October 2020

The NTEU claims to have been unaware of the level of exploitation and underpayment, especially of casuals.

New York City workers and students reject school reopenings through mass absenteeism

By Alberto Escalera, 28 October 2020

This week, the New York City Department of Education announced that only 26 percent of its 1.1 million students are attending classes in school buildings, underscoring the massive opposition of parents and students to Democratic Mayor Bill de Blasio’s school reopening plan.

UK teacher describes disastrous lack of safety at reopened schools: “Teachers are at high risk of serious illness and death from COVID-19”

By Our reporter, 28 October 2020

Lucia tried to share a petition calling for PPE for teachers, with 200,000 signatures, with national media organisations but was ignored, including by the pseudo-left Socialist Workers Party.

French government whitewashes COVID-19 clusters in schools, universities

By Samuel Tissot, 27 October 2020

The reopening of in-person education has been a central element of the murderous, anti-scientific policy of “herd immunity” overseen by the French government.

COVID rips through Michigan K-12 schools: record 29 new outbreaks reported last week

By Zac Corrigan, 27 October 2020

Altogether, there are now 99 total ongoing outbreaks that have led to 482 reported cases of COVID-19 among students, teachers and staff throughout Michigan.

“I would love to see a national strike.”

Houston teachers speak out on their wildcat sickout strike

By Chase Lawrence, 26 October 2020

In interviews with the WSWS, teachers denounced the return to in-person instruction and spoke in favor of building independent rank-and-file safety committees to halt in-person instruction.

Australia: New COVID-19 infections follow reopening of Melbourne schools

By Patrick Kelly, 26 October 2020

The infection clusters underscore the dangers of reopening schools amid continued community transmission of COVID-19.

Ontario’s reckless reopening of workplaces and schools producing disastrous conditions in child care facilities

By Omar Ali, 26 October 2020

At big business’ behest, governments across Canada and of every political stripe have starved child care of public funds for decades.

Australia: University of Melbourne IYSSE holds successful AGM despite anti-democratic measures

By Our correspondent, 24 October 2020

Held amid a COVID-19 lockdown, the meeting reflected the growing radicalisation among youth and students.

“The forming of rank-and-file committees in schools is so important as the voices of teachers, students, carers, administration and many others are being ignored”

Worker in UK speaks out on the unsafe reopening of schools

By Our reporter, 24 October 2020

Colin spoke to the WSWS after participating in a recent meeting of the Educators Rank-and-File Safety Committee in the UK.

Chicago officials plan to reopen schools for 20,000 students

By Michael Walters, 24 October 2020

The plan to shift from online learning to a daily in-person schedule was announced as Illinois’ seven-day average COVID-19 testing positivity rate surpassed five percent for the first time since early June.

UK parent speaks out about catastrophic “herd immunity” policy of Johnson government

By Our reporter, 23 October 2020

“Achieving herd immunity properly means protecting people through vaccination. It has never been shown that herd immunity can be achieved by allowing people to catch a virus and die.”

Over 100 teachers launch wildcat sickout strike in Houston

By Chase Lawrence and Evan Blake, 23 October 2020

The drive by Texas Democrats to reopen Houston schools coincides with the platform of the Biden-Harris campaign, which fraudulently claim that this can be done “safely” while the pandemic spirals out of control.

Marcus Rashford’s fight against child poverty exposes Labour and trade unions’ partnership with Johnson government

By Barry Mason and Robert Stevens, 22 October 2020

Marcus Rashford has more fight in his little toe than the entire Labour and trade union bureaucracy.

Houston schools reopen as COVID-19 surges in Texas

By Emma Arceneaux, 22 October 2020

The push to reopen the largest district in the state, and seventh-largest in the country, takes place as the coronavirus pandemic is raging in Texas, which has over 881,000 confirmed cases and 17,646 deaths, the second highest numbers in the country.

Washtenaw County issues stay-at-home order at University of Michigan campus in the wake of campus COVID outbreak

By Jesse Thomas, 21 October 2020

The rise in cases at the University of Michigan follows the shutdown of the graduate student strike last month, which was waged in opposition to the university’s unsafe reopening policy.

Missouri coronavirus infection rates spike, creating havoc in schools, economy

By Cole Michaels, 21 October 2020

As in the Midwest more generally, Missouri hit another record level number of COVID-19 infections over the last week, driven by the White House’s “herd immunity” policy.

School nurse dies from COVID-19 as officials in Baltimore–Washington region reopen schools

By Harvey Simpkins, 21 October 2020

The push to reopen Democrat-controlled districts throughout the region is part of a nationwide trend that has been spearheaded in New York City, the largest district in the US.

Northern Virginia Community College faculty and staff speak out about loss of work due to budget crisis

By Dominic Gustavo and Nick Barrickman, 21 October 2020

Professors and student workers in the Virginia Community College System spoke to the IYSSE about their loss of work related to the pandemic

As teachers fight deadly return to school, the DSA runs to the defense of the unions and Democrats

By Tom Hall, 21 October 2020

A recent article in Jacobin magazine makes it clear the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) is trying to prevent educators from drawing the necessary conclusion that the fight against unsafe school openings must be organized independently of and in opposition to the unions and the Democratic Party.

Buenos Aires health care workers stage protest

Workers Struggles: The Americas

20 October 2020

Health care sector worker in Buenos Aires, Argentina march to the city government offices to press demands for nurses to attain permanent professional status, emergency raises and additional staffing during the COVID-19 pandemic.

SUNY Cortland continues pause on in-person instruction following continued outbreak

By Alex Findijs, 20 October 2020

Cortland has already been in a two-week pause after recording more than 100 cases of COVID-19 in a two-week period. School plans to reopen were foiled after a major outbreak days before the end of the temporary pause

“COVID is like an active shooter in the building”

New York state teachers describe disaster of school reopening

By Sandy English, 20 October 2020

Three teachers from different parts of New York state spoke with the WSWS about the spread of infections, the stress on teachers and students and indifference of state and local officials.

As outbreaks spread in US, major Democrat-led cities push to reopen schools

By Jerry White and Evan Blake, 20 October 2020

While the Democrats publicly decry President Trump’s blatant indifference to the spread of the virus, in practice they are carrying out the same murderous policy of opening schools amid the raging pandemic.

British Columbia Teachers’ Federation facilitates reckless reopening of schools that puts teachers and students’ lives at risk

By Matthew Richter, 19 October 2020

While the teachers union has connived with the NDP provincial government to reopen schools, popular opposition is mounting. As of tomorrow, more than 800 parents across British Columbia plan to keep their kids at home to protest the unsafe conditions in the classrooms.

Florida school bus driver dies from COVID-19 weeks before her planned retirement

By Alex Johnson, 19 October 2020

The tragic October 9 death of 66-year old school bus driver Gail Brusseau in Florida has again exposed the homicidal campaign being waged against the working class.

Tennessee educator dies of COVID-19 after governor touts “strong safety measures” in schools

By Our reporters, 19 October 2020

Fifty-three-year old Susan Keener, an educational assistant at Walter Hill Elementary School in Rutherford County, Tennessee, died after being placed on a ventilator due to the contraction of COVID-19 in August.

German parents’ associations protest against dangerous school openings

By Gregor Link, 19 October 2020

More and more workers and young people in Germany and Europe as a whole oppose the policy of herd immunity decreed by ruling circles, a policy that will result in the death of hundreds of thousands of people.

Brazil’s COVID-19 deaths pass 150,000 mark amid back-to-school campaign

By Eduardo Parati and Gabriel Lemos, 17 October 2020

After reaching the grim milestone, state governments are following Bolsonaro’s homicidal back-to-school policies with the support of the unions.

New York University defies state COVID-19 guidelines and continues in-person classes

By John Conrad, 16 October 2020

The decision to not immediately halt in-person classes and work at NYU amid a resurgence of the pandemic underscores the recklessness of the university administration.

San Diego educators launch rank-and-file safety committee to halt school reopenings and save lives

San Diego Educators Rank-and-File Safety Committee, 16 October 2020

Our committee answers directly to the interests of the working class, not to the major corporations, their political representatives in the Democratic and Republican parties, or the teachers unions which have facilitated school reopenings.

Faculty union abruptly ends strike at Youngstown State University

By Isaac Finn, 16 October 2020

The faculty union at YSU announced a shutdown of a three-day strike after an “understanding” was reached with the administration.

University of Michigan cafeteria workers oppose reopening of dining halls as coronavirus continues to spread on campus

By Jesse Thomas, 16 October 2020

In the weeks following the sellout of the graduate student strike, multiple COVID-19 clusters have been confirmed on campus, demonstrating the complete inadequacy of the university’s testing regime.

State-orchestrated anti-Semitism witch-hunt extended to UK university campuses

By Thomas Scripps, 16 October 2020

Williamson’s letter is the latest move in a five-year conspiracy of the Conservative government, the Labour Party, and Zionist organisations aimed at criminalising vast swathes of the political left.

San Diego educators force delay in school reopenings as COVID-19 spreads in the region

By Melody Isley, 16 October 2020

The delay to school reopenings stems directly from the actions of rank-and-file educators and parents, who have organized car caravan protests and have been increasingly outspoken on social media.

Pandemic fuels class struggle across Africa

By Jean Shaoul, 15 October 2020

The working class is manifesting its discontent with the situation in a resurgent wave of political radicalisation that had briefly abated after the onset of the pandemic.

Polish high school students strike to demand end to in-person classes

By Clara Weiss, 14 October 2020

Schools have become the main vector for the second wave of the pandemic, with at least two teachers and one 20-year-old student dying over the past week alone.

Teacher death toll mounts as districts across the US push forward with school reopenings

By Emma Arceneaux, 14 October 2020

At least eight more educators across the US have died from COVID-19 in the past two weeks alone.

UK Educators Rank-and-File Safety Committee meets as COVID-19 sweeps through student campuses

By Our reporter, 14 October 2020

Emma, a parent of primary school age children, said, “I could not agree more with all of you. How can anybody make schools safe? Even our primary school head said they couldn’t guarantee safety.

COVID-19 outbreaks erupt in Florida public schools as state demands further reopenings

By Alex Johnson, 14 October 2020

Public schools in Florida are experiencing a dangerous growth of COVID-19 infections as the state government aggressively pursues in-class instruction in locations ravaged by the pandemic.

Over 300 faculty at Youngstown State University in Ohio strike for the first time in 15 years

By Isaac Finn, 13 October 2020

Growing anger among YSU faculty has forced the union to launch a strike, which they aim to end as quickly as possible on the university’s terms.

Tennessee educators form rank-and-file safety committee to close schools and save lives

Tennessee Educators Rank-and-File Safety Committee, 13 October 2020

Educators across Tennessee have launched this committee to unite with other sections of the working class against the unsafe reopening of schools and to halt the spread of the pandemic.

The Green Party of Canada chooses a new leader—multiple political frauds for the price of one

By James Clayton and Keith Jones, 12 October 2020

Anamie Paul, the candidate favoured by the Green Party establishment, narrowly prevailed over the “eco-socialist,” Palestinian-rights activist, and one-time Wall Street lawyer, Dimitri Lascaris.

State and federal governments conceal COVID-19 outbreaks in US schools

By Chase Lawrence, 12 October 2020

Across the US, the location of coronavirus outbreaks in schools are being deliberately hidden from the public, in order to prevent teachers and parents from drawing the conclusion that face-to-face instruction should stop.

French universities enforce de facto herd immunity policy on COVID-19

By Samuel Tissot, 12 October 2020

Despite a nominal commitment to limited measures to contain the virus, in reality French universities are allowing the virus to rapid spread amongst students, accelerating infections and deaths in the wider population.

350,000 US education jobs slashed in September

By Renae Cassimeda, 12 October 2020

The mass layoffs come four months after an unprecedented 1.4 million education layoffs as a result of the pandemic, and are the tip of the iceberg with no federal aid on the horizon.

University and College Union moves to prevent strikes as COVID-19 cases surge on UK campuses

By E.P. Milligan, 10 October 2020

Northumbria University’s decision to move online prompted the University and College Union (UCU) leadership to call off strike action, while claiming a victory.

Reopening of German schools leads to explosion of COVID-19 infections

By Gregor Link, 10 October 2020

The ruling class knows that it is preparing a catastrophe with its ruthless policy of opening up the economy and its refusal to take serious measures to contain the virus.

Pennsylvania educators, bus drivers and school workers launch rank-and-file safety committee to put an end to in-person instruction

Pennsylvania Educators Rank-and-File Safety Committee, 10 October 2020

Educators across Pennsylvania have formed a new rank-and-file safety committee to mobilize the working class against the unsafe reopening of the commonwealth’s schools.

Oppose the $900 million cuts in retroactive pay to New York City educators!

New York City Educators Rank-and-File Safety Committee, 10 October 2020

The withholding of $900 million in pay owed to NYC teachers from over ten years ago is a brazen act of blackmail and wage theft.

SUNY Cortland pauses in-person instruction after outbreak of COVID-19

By Alex Findijs, 9 October 2020

After recording 101 positive cases of coronavirus in less than two weeks, SUNY Cortland became the third SUNY school to temporarily switch to online instruction for two weeks.

Los Angeles school district uses COVID-19 testing to accelerate back-to-school drive

By Dan Conway, 9 October 2020

The Los Angeles Unified School District finished its trial phase of coronavirus testing and will begin implementing larger scale testing in preparation for a return to in-person learning as early as November.

One-day nationwide strike against South African ANC government

By Jean Shaoul, 9 October 2020

The mass walkout is part of a broader wave of struggles by workers in recent months that have seen repeated actions by healthcare workers, municipal workers, bus drivers, teachers and workers in meat processing plants, steel works and warehouses.

Zimbabwean teachers refuse to work as government reopens schools without COVID-19 protection

By Stephan McCoy, 9 October 2020

Teachers are demanding that as frontline workers they should have regular testing, adequate personal protective equipment (PPE), and risk allowances before they are prepared to start work again.

Quebec educator urges teachers to build rank-and-file safety committees to oppose reckless school reopening

By our reporter, 8 October 2020

There is no longer any doubt that the reopening of schools in Quebec, as across Canada, is fueling the resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic.

SUNY students face budget gap in Excelsior Scholarship program

By Alex Findijs, 8 October 2020

With a $62 billion budget gap, some SUNY students have been charged full tuition and are unsure when their scholarship credits will be applied.

“They want the schools to remain open at all costs”

Tennessee educator speaks out on unsafe conditions in schools

By Our reporters, 8 October 2020

While the state’s governor proclaims schools are safe, the teacher reveals how her school has been unable to contain the spread of the virus and the impact this has had on educators and students alike.

New York governor closes some schools and businesses while COVID-19 infections spike

By Alberto Escalera, 8 October 2020

With anger increasing over the unsafe opening of the nation’s largest school system, Governor Andrew Cuomo is moving to close a limited number of schools in communities that have become COVID-19 hotspots.

Appalachian State University faculty and students demand action after death of healthy student from COVID-19

By Aaron Murch, 8 October 2020

Following the death of 19-year-old Chad Dorrill, students and professors have spoken out against the poor handling of the coronavirus pandemic by the university’s administration.

With COVID-19 rates rising, Massachusetts officials push to reopen schools and businesses

By Andrew Timon, 7 October 2020

Last Thursday marked the opening of public schools in Boston, Massachusetts, for in-person learning for high need students, despite rising numbers of COVID-19 cases in the city and state.

Teachers unions stifle opposition to Louisiana school reopenings

By Emma Arceneaux, 7 October 2020

After receiving widespread complaints from teachers across East Baton Rouge, Louisiana, about the conditions in their schools, the teachers union organized a one-day “day of action” sickout strike on Monday in an effort to let off steam among educators.

Faculty strike looms at Youngstown State University after trustees reject fact-finding report

By Isaac Finn, 7 October 2020

If the strike vote passes it would be the first strike called by the YSU-OEA in 15 years